Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Philosophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 16

Philosophy - Essay Example But both the types of existentialists think that existence precedes essence. In simple words, idea of the object comes first and then, based on that idea, objects are created. Thus, according to Christian existentialist, man is the result or realization of a specific concept of God. Atheist existentialist says that human reality was created that gave identity to man and it was man himself, who defined how and what he will be. Therefore, according to atheist existentialist, since God does not exists, there is no concept of human nature but once man comes into existence, he is, what he makes of himself to be. This is a very interesting concept of human reality. Man, being a subjective reality, can mold himself into any desired image that he can conceive for himself. When a man makes a choice, he needs to be responsible because he is also representative of mankind and indirectly responsible for all men. It means that man cannot transcend human subjectivity. When a man decides to act in certain manner, he does so because he thinks that is the right way to act and that is how he would expect others to act. Similarly when he makes a choice, he opts for something that he accepts is important and which has considerable value for him. One can never deliberately choose evil so it can be correctly interpreted that we always make effort to choose things and actions that are good. Since things can only be good for one if they are considered good by one and all, therefore, it can be said that one’s responsibility becomes greater because it involves all human-being. Indeed, when he says that â€Å"Existentialism is nothing other than an attempt to draw all the consequences of a coherent atheistic position†, he implies that man acts in a certain manner because he knows those actions have some definite value for him and therefore,

Monday, October 28, 2019

Case Study. Champion Essay Example for Free

Case Study. Champion Essay CASE: Rebhan v. Pop Warner Little Scholars, INC FACTS: Gator Rebhan is the former head coach of Suniland Sundevils. They were two time National Champions, including a victoy of 56-6 in the championship game. That following week, Pop Warner suspended Rebhan indefinitely alleging he intentionally ran up the score, which is a violation of Pop Warner rules. Rebhan filed a suit claiming that Pop Warner did not follow their own rules, in two instances. First, the referees failed to reward the ball to the opponents after each score until the deficit was less than 36. Rebhan was also never contacted or interviewed by Pop Warner to get his side of the story. ISSUE: Was Pop Warner within its rights to suspend Rebhan for running up the score, without hearing from him first? HOLDING: According to â€Å"We Own This Game†, Gator Rebhan dropped his lawsuit against Pop Warner in the following year. RATIONALE: Although the suit was dropped, Rebhan did hold a very strong case to be reinstated. Pop Warner broke its own league rules by not interviewing him prior to his suspension. Had they done so, they might have come to a different conclusion after he argued that he was trying to protect his own players after the opposing team stacked the box with 11 men. They might also realize that had the officials done their part correctly, Rebhan’s team would never have been rewarded the ball after the deficit reached greater than 36. According to â€Å"We Own This Game†, Rebhan’s suspension expired, and there was no reason for him to follow through with the case. Gator Rebhan was allowed to coach the Suniland Sundevils for the following season.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Nuclear Energy is Safe and Clean Essay -- Power Plant Energy Safety

Abstract Nuclear energy is a promising source of electricity for the future. Although there are many people against it, it is only because many do not know of the progresses nuclear energy has made since it was started. Nuclear energy has become one of the cleanest sources of energy with minimum radiation. These are such small quantities that we receive only about .5 millirems of it yearly while nature sums it up to 360 millirems for the average person. Many of us shy away from nuclear energy due to fear caused by ignorance but with some patience and research one can realize the potential that nuclear power has and how it can shape a new era in the future. It is an energy source with massive amounts of energy as a byproduct of its fission and over the years we have acquired the technology not only to harness it but to make it a renewable resource as well to fast breeders. Nuclear power may seem like a heavy investment but it is a change much needed for the growing economy and dependence on el ectricity. Introduction Nuclear energy has proven itself to be a clean source of energy; yet, fear of radiation has kept its use from becoming more expansive. Nuclear energy is one of the newer types of energy sources used yet ignorance over the true dangers of nuclear energy causes the public to push away a potential energy source. Fear of radiation is illogical because everyone is exposed to background radiation every day. We receive radiation from cosmic rays, outer space, radon gas, and from naturally radioactive elements in the earth. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem.(mrem)(Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management) Millirems are units o... types of breeder reactors are the LMFBR’s or the liquid metal fast breeder reactors. These reactors are either lead cooled or sodium cooled. These types of reactors place more emphasis in the fact that nuclear power has become safer and more efficient to where no matter the disadvantages the advantages greatly outnumber the costs of using nuclear energy. References Brain, Marshall. (2015) "How Nuclear Power Works" Web. 29 May 2015. McCarthy, J. (2013) Web. 29 May 2015. Thomas, Steve. "The Economics of Nuclear Power." (2005) Web. 29 May 2015. Timeline - Greatest Engineering Achievements of the Twentieth Century. (2015) Web. 29 May 2015.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Description of business Essay

This entrepreneur will be opening a new business which will operate as a sole trader. The name of this business is CJ’s Seafood joint.CJ’s Seafood joint will operate under the logo â€Å"Come have a mouthful of flavor. Operating as a sole trader would mean that the entrepreneur would make all the descions himself but would also have to carry the responsibilities for himself. The main aim of the business is to have every customer who comes comes through our doors impressed by CJ’s and will be excited to come again,also to create and maintain a surrounding that is comprehensive and exceptional in its attention to every detail of operation.The entrepreneur also wishes to provide a friendly, cooperative and rewarding environment which encourages longterm, satisfying, growth employment.To keep the concept fresh,exciting and on the cutting edge of the hospitality industry. The business will be opened on weekdays 8:00 am to 10:30pm,weekends,9:00 am to 11:30 pm also on public holidays. CJ’s is opened to a variety of different persons and age groups.It would be coveinienient to persons who are working long hours and so does not have the time to prepare a proper meal or even a family who is just looking for somewhere nice and beautiful to have dinner.CJ’s will also serve an as accommodation for catering at dinners,weddings and any other events. Justification of location CJ’s seafood joint will be loctated in Kingston at Ann’s Bay near the sea.The business will do exceptionally well at this location because of its proximity from the sea.Being located near the sea would mean that the raw materials needed for the running of the business would cost less money to transport the raw materials to the business.Also the business will have a dependable source of material this means there will never be a scarcity in production. Secondly, beach scenery would also serve as an attraction for both local and international customers,especially the tourist from which foreign exchange would be gained which means more profits for the business.A beautiful beach scenery would provide a relaxed and calm environment which would entise the customers into returning again and having a god reputation would mean more customers thus more profits. Selection of appropriate labour For this business to be ran successfully,the entrepreneur will need to employ both skilled and skilled workers.The skilled workers in this business will consist of: Two Chefs and one executive chef.These persons will be incharge of the preparation and meal planning of all the sophisticated menus and introducing new ideas which will motivate the customers in returning. 2 Bartenders.These persons would be incharge of making refresging beverages and liquors according to the customers preference. The business will also need 5 Cashiers.They will be incharge of the money made on a daily basis and will play a part in the monitoring of the business’s financial transactions and data. In this business the unskilled are just as important as the skilled workers as they play a vital role in the successful running of the business.The skilled will consist of: 10 Janitors.They will be incharge of the proper maintenance and sanitation of the premises which will give the business a good reputation for its emmaculate maintenance . 4 waiters and 4 waitresses. They will be responsible for satisfying the customers requirements and should try to meet all of them with no animosity and should be patient in dealing with their problems. 10 fishermen.They will be responsible for going out to sea and ensuring that the sea animals needed by the business is always on time and of good quality. Sources of fixed and working capital The business will need both working and fixed capital.The two sources of fixed capital to be used by the business are: A loan of US $300,000 from the National Commercial Bank, to be secured with a mortgage on the entrepreneurs home,which would go towards: the purchasing of new equipement renovating and upgrading the premisis purchasing of more delivery vehicles The second source will be: personnal savings of the entrepreneur of US$10,000 from the Jamaica Mutual Bank which will be used to do the same as the things listed above. The two sources of working capital will be a loan from the bank and personal savings of the entrepreneur .This money will contribute towards: paying salaries paying utility bills pay rent on the premises The money borrowed from the bank will be repaid from the profits accumulated during a period of 10 years of successful business management. Role of entrepreneur The entrepreneur is one who organizes the factors of production to create goods and services. The most suitable location, qualified workers, and the right equipment and machinery will ensure efficient production. It is therefore important for him to make the right decisions concerning the employment of the required resources for his business. He must also make decisions on systems and processes to be applied in the production process.An entrepreneur has many roles/responsibility, three of which are: PLANNING Planning is very important to every venture. It is more important to the entrepreneur’s venture because of the uncertainty of success and less room to make mistake. The entrepreneur’s focus is on the execution side and how to get the product to the market in the shortest amount of time so as to start earning revenue. OPERATING This is where the entrepreneur starts putting all its business ideas into place .He analyzes his ideas and sees if they are going according to planned. Conceptualizing This is where the entrepreneur gains an understanding of the business and what he hopes it will be, Production The action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured.There are three types of production.They include: Primary Production This includes all kinds of extractive industries such as agriculture, mining and fishing. Secondary Production This includes manufacturing such as assembling, refining and construction (building) industries. Tertiary Production This includes all kinds of service industries such as transportation, communication and tourism. The type of production used in the business is primary production.The fishes and other sea animals are extracted from the sea to be made in a finished product to be enjoyed by thousands of customers. Levels of production Production is the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured.There are three levels of production.These include Subsistence This is the lowest level of production. Subsistence productions refers to output from the production process that is just enough for the survival. This amount of production is therefore not adequate to meet all needs and wants of a family, community or a country. For example, subsistence farming involves the production of crops to feed the family and for survival. Wealth is not created as whatever is produced is consumed. Domestic Production Domestic production refers to production that is more than survival level. It provides output that is enough to satisfy domestic needs and wants. Excess is not available for export. However, production is adequate to supply local demand. Surplus or Export This level of production is adequate to supply local demand and for export. Large industries can produce large quantities of output to satisfy local consumption and earn foreign exchange from export, for example, the sugar and banana industries. The type of production used by CJ’s Seafood Joint is domestic production.The business provides mostly for the local market.There is sufficient demand locally to absorb all the produce. Quality control measures The entrepreneur will make a daily report on the problems or difficulties face on a daily business and implement measures to correct them. The entrepreneur will also be responsible for inspecting the goods carried in on a daily basis to make sure that they are up to standard and are suitable for consumption. Technology In today’s world technology has become one of the fastest advancements.In CJ’s Seafood Joint it will play a vital part in its day to day running. Two types of technology used by the business are a refrigerator and a computer. The refrigerator is responsible for the preservation of foods and beverages.Without the refrigerators,items will start to them rottening resulting in a loss of money and customers due to a bad reputation of rotted foods The computers is most important as it contains all the business’s transactions and data.It provides order and allows information to be accessed easily,without the availability of computers everything will be chaotic. Potential for growth Internally We will be able to expand our initial operation by 80% by our 7th year, however expanding would mean a larger premisis which would require us to go elsewhere for the business to be successful in all its different aspects.We would need to buy additional delivery vehicles also an addition of ten (10) members of staff to share the extra work load.The business would have to move to a similar locatiom,near the sea, so as to not make things difficult in the purchasing and transporting of foods Externally If we can acquire a good record,we might be able to expand internationally,allowing us to open branches in different countries turning CJ’s into a multi-national business .The business would so make more money and foreign exchange,also more exposure for the business. Linkages The business turns raw materials into a delicious produce to be consumed by our customers. Having a backward linkage helps the business in that there is a reduced dependence on imported goods since local suppliers provide the raw materials for the producers.The linkage will allow the business to source fresh produce,to minimize delivery time and transport costs and to maintain a close relationship with the product suppliers to ensure product quality. Government Regulations The business must apply to the Commissioner of Taxes to be a registered taxpayer, the business will earn atleast at least JMD 2,000,000. The application for GCT registration must be submitted within 21 days after taxable activity has started. A temporary GCT certificate will be issued to the company upon receipt of the application for GCT. Documents to be submitted are the following: 1. Completed application for TRN Number Organisations 2. NIS number confirming that the company is not yet liable to National Insurance. 3. Certified copy of Articles of Incorporation 4. Authorisation letter if the TRN application is being made by a third party. The business will be affected by the health and safety regulations ,particulary with regard to oil spills.The entrepreneur must be familiar with all legal requirements for occupational health and safety,and must ensure full compliance. Ethical Issues CJ’s will make the aspect of ethical issues priority as it relates to the development of the business. CJ’S Cuisine will endeavour to do its best in not to be involved in ignoring health, safety and environmental standards. The business will ensure that all these aspects meet the necessary requirement in order to avoid instances such as food poisoning .we will aim to meet a good nutritional standard for all meals,with a balance of proteins and other requirements.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Counseling Psychology

A fuller understanding of clients’ problems within the province of psychological counseling involves not only the cogency of the framework employed but also how it applies in practice. Mindful of the fact that there is no single intervention or explanation that can possibly apply to all cases; there is a pressing need for counseling psychologists to take into consideration the client’s point of view; that is, how the client understands, appropriates and integrates for his/herself his/her current situation.If we are to characterize the past two decades, we may say that it is noted for an increased emphasis on methodological diversity, not only in approaches but also, and more importantly, in terms of alternative research methods in counseling psychology (Goldman, 1976; Howard, 1983). In this aspect, the emergence of pragmatism allowed for diverse approaches in counseling psychology which values both objective and subjective knowledge (Hanson, 2005, p.226). Mindful of thi s significant shift in theorizing and research, this paper seeks to articulate the underpinnings of the generalist approach to counseling psychology, their problems and limitations so as to provide feasible solutions for a more pragmatic approach that is beneficial not only for the clients but for the practitioner as well. The dominant approach in the profession of counseling psychology is the generalist model of intervention.The generalist approach is essentially a problem-solving approach which operates on the assumption that as experts, psychologists know best, since they have the necessary knowledge, skills and training in handling clients’ problems. Six interrelated steps/stages are involved in the generalist intervention model: (1) assessment, (2) planning, (3) intervention, (4) evaluation, (5) termination, and (6) follow up.The essential difference between the generalist and the person-centered approach in terms of intervention is that the generalist sees the relations hip in the â€Å"expert-client† kind of way, whereas, it is not necessarily the case for the person-centered approach. The counseling psychologist who employs the person-centered approach knows the value of emphatic listening and applies it to his/her clients for this will be of great help in addressing the client’s need for positive regard from others.If the client feels comfortable with the counseling psychologist because the latter knows how to listen, then this will be of great help in boosting the client’s self-worth. The person-centered approach was developed from the client-centered approach by Carl Rogers. Regarding the impact of the person-centered approach, Krebs and Blackman (1988) wrote: â€Å"The person-centered approach has had impact on domains outside of therapy such as family life, education, leadership, conflict resolution, politics and community health.† On a preliminary note, it may be said that for Krebs and Blackman, the person-cente red approach has many interesting and fruitful applications. As was noted earlier, Roger’s person-centered therapy is a modification of his client-centered therapy, the foundation of which is a phenomenological and existential framework on construing a theory of personality. An adequate theory of personality, as Roger sees it, must take into account the core notions of (1) human nature and (2) the human condition and the reason for improving the aforementioned condition.He writes: â€Å"the core of man's nature is essentially positive† (1961, p. 73). He adopts an organismic view of the person in a positive way. It is positive in the sense that the person, as an organism, is driven by an actualizing tendency. This idea is actuallly not something new and may be compared to the ancient Greeks idea of the telos which is the Greek term for end or purpose. In Aristotle’s view, for instance, man’s telos involves the actualization of the distinctive human functio n.It is, in this direction then that human beings ought to move [that is, the actualization of the human potentials]. â€Å"The good life is a process not a state of being. It is a direction, not a destination (Rogers, 1961, p. 186)†. The Self then for Rogers, is driven by the said actualizing tendency. A fully-functioning person for Rogers is a person who is developing, or if I may use Aristotle’s word â€Å"flourishing†. The fully-functioning person flourishes, so to speak, that is, geared towards development. Development in this sense, would involve personality development.Since man’s nature, as Rogers claims, is positive then he/she will seek personality development. If the person-centered approach to counseling psychology is more appropriate in terms of producing successful outcomes, then perhaps we may consider juxtaposing such an approach with the constructivist framework. According to Neimeyer (1995) constructivism represents a meta-theory and epi stemologic stance that emphasises self-conceiving, self-organising, and proactive features of human knowing (cited in Savickas, 2000, p. 60).Moreover, by juxtaposing the person-centered approach with constructivism, both the client and the counseling psychologist may continuously review, revise and re-orient themselves with the things that they know and how they live their lives. This is to say that there is no monopoly in terms of the learning process that takes place since both the client and the counseling psychologist takes an active part in the meaning-making process. This way, psychology becomes humanistic. Rogers’ person-centered approach is of this type.Humanistic psychology, as a reaction to positivistic psychology, sheds light on important questions that matter, not only for the client and practitioner, learner and teacher. Schneider, et. al, summarized these questions as follows: â€Å"What does it mean to be fully experientially human? † and â€Å"How does that understanding illuminate the fulfilled or vital life? † (Schneider, et. al, 2001, p. xx). These questions are questions of universal concern and have been framed in different ways by different thinkers in different periods in the history of ideas.In the final analysis, we may take refuge in the thought that developing humanistic psychology brings us closer to understanding our human condition, our situatedness. In so doing, it also gives us a fuller understanding of our very own humanity. For it is by knowing who we are and where we stand can we chart the rightful path towards a just and humane society. References Goldman, L. (1976). â€Å"A Revolution in Counseling Psychology. † Journal of Counseling Psychology. 23: 543-552. Hanson, W. E. (2005). â€Å"Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology. † Journal of Counseling Psychology. 52: 224-235. Howard, G. S. (1983).â€Å"Toward Methodological Pluralism. † Journal of Counseling Psychology . 30: 19-21. Krebs, D. , Blackman, R. (1988). Psychology: A First Encounter. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Rogers, C. R. (1965). â€Å"A Humanistic Conception of Man†. In R. E. Farson (ed. ) Science and Human Affairs: Science and Behavior Books, Inc. ___. (1961). On Becoming a Person. Houghton Mifflin. Savickas, M. L. (2000). â€Å"Renovating the Psychology of Careers for the Twenty First Century. † The Future of Career. Cambridge University Press. Schneider, K. J. , et. al. (2001). The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research and Practice. Sage.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Description Of T. Mann

Heinrich Manns novel paints a portrait of the Second Reich through the eyes of Diedrich Hessling, an unconsequential little man who bullied his way into society using superpatriotism (he even curls his mustache so that it resembles the emperors) and nationalism as a crutch, finally gaining status as a prominent conservative businessman, in the process being metamorphosed into a mini-Kaiser. His struggle was a reflection of the Second Reichs attempt at world domination through nationalism and Social Darwinism. His use of patriotism to the emperor was used when he manipulates someone into stating that the Hohenzollerns were Jews, accusing him of lese-majeste. At that mans trial, Diedrich is accurately portrayed as "an average man, with a commonplace mind,... without courage so long as things are going badly for him and tremendously self-important as soon as they had turned in his favour" Diedrich doesnt hesitate to make alliances when expedient and to boost his star higher, such as his association with his nemesis, Napoleon Fischer, a Social Democrat machinist at his factory. On one occasion, to cover up his own mistake in miscalculating the dimensions of the New Patent Cylinder Machine, he bribed Fischer to sabotage the machine so that he had a case to return it. Later, the two agreed to help each other in their political ambitions. Thus Diedrich used his patriotism and anti-Social Democratic stance as ways to boost himself onward and upward, yet willing to make alliances with his alleged enemies, similar to the way Bismarck used nationalism as a tool to rally the Liberals against his wars against Austria and the south German states against France, all for his own personal power. The importance of Wilhelm IIs attempted surpassing of Bismarck must be reiterated. Diedrichs colleague warns people of the danger of any man emulating Bismarck: "Weak and pacifistic by nature, he becomes noisy and dangerous. Without a doubt the victori... Free Essays on Description Of T. Mann Free Essays on Description Of T. Mann Heinrich Manns novel paints a portrait of the Second Reich through the eyes of Diedrich Hessling, an unconsequential little man who bullied his way into society using superpatriotism (he even curls his mustache so that it resembles the emperors) and nationalism as a crutch, finally gaining status as a prominent conservative businessman, in the process being metamorphosed into a mini-Kaiser. His struggle was a reflection of the Second Reichs attempt at world domination through nationalism and Social Darwinism. His use of patriotism to the emperor was used when he manipulates someone into stating that the Hohenzollerns were Jews, accusing him of lese-majeste. At that mans trial, Diedrich is accurately portrayed as "an average man, with a commonplace mind,... without courage so long as things are going badly for him and tremendously self-important as soon as they had turned in his favour" Diedrich doesnt hesitate to make alliances when expedient and to boost his star higher, such as his association with his nemesis, Napoleon Fischer, a Social Democrat machinist at his factory. On one occasion, to cover up his own mistake in miscalculating the dimensions of the New Patent Cylinder Machine, he bribed Fischer to sabotage the machine so that he had a case to return it. Later, the two agreed to help each other in their political ambitions. Thus Diedrich used his patriotism and anti-Social Democratic stance as ways to boost himself onward and upward, yet willing to make alliances with his alleged enemies, similar to the way Bismarck used nationalism as a tool to rally the Liberals against his wars against Austria and the south German states against France, all for his own personal power. The importance of Wilhelm IIs attempted surpassing of Bismarck must be reiterated. Diedrichs colleague warns people of the danger of any man emulating Bismarck: "Weak and pacifistic by nature, he becomes noisy and dangerous. Without a doubt the victori...

Monday, October 21, 2019

buy custom American Literature essay

buy custom American Literature essay Washington Irving is a well acclaimed American writer. The man was born in 1783 on 3rd April. He was a young boy who was born sickly but already by this age his adventurous nature had stated to show. He was named after George Washington the first president of the United States of America. He was the son of Dutch immigrants who were good people who often took care of the people afflicted by the war. Irving as a child was a very mischievous boy who would sneak out at night to go and see the city. Due to his ill health he went to England for treatment. When the man returned he was better and he was a lawyer at the time of return. He went back to Europe again during the war where he stayed until the war was over. He wrote a book when he was away and the book was accepted by the American citizenry very well (Irving 11). In his book rip van winkle there is a man the main character named Rip van winkle he is a married man with many habits but he is quite lazy and idle. Dame van winkle his wife has many times subjected him to arguments over his lazy nature (Irving 13). He has a son whose name is rip and then there is wolf rip van winkles faithful dog. On one of the fine days rip van winkle decides to take a walk up the mountain with his dog wolf. As he is going up the mountain a man calls his name and he turns back to look. When he looks he sees a man carrying a keg up the mountain and he decides to help the man. As they walk up the mountain with the keg they dont exchange words, they walk all the way to the top of the mountain where they find a group of Dutch men playing a game of nine pins. All the men know rip but rip does not recognize any of them. Rip does not talk to any of the men but he proceeds to secretly drink their keg (Irving 15). He falls asleep and when he wakes up he finds that the men are not there, his beard has grown and his dog wolf is no longer by his side. He runs down the mountain to go to his wife but all he finds on the other end is somber news that his wife is dead. He encounters another man also named rip van winkle he doesnt understand what is going on at all. He falls into more trouble when he declares his loyalty to king George he finds out that it is years after the war and president Washington is now the supreme in America. Rip moves in with his daughter and continues with his idle lifestyle. Most men envy him ad wish they could have sleepy soundly through the war like rip got to do. Irvin has also written other storieslike the legend of sleepy hollow. In this story the main character is Ichabod Crane a lean lackey and extremely superstitious man from Connecticut. He competes with Brom Bones the town rowdy for the hand of the town sweetheart Katrina van tassel. As the main Ichabod comes from a party at the van tassel home one evening he is pursued by a headless horseman. The headless horseman is in this story a ghost who was a soldier in the American war and lost his head to a cannon ball in a nameless battle. The horseman now rides in pursuit of his head. Ichabod disappears mysteriously from town. The story does not go as far as to tell us who the headless horseman is but it implies that it was Brom Bones (Irving 18). He has also written the Spector bridegroom. It is yet another ghost story though it is told with a kind of happy ending. Where the niece is happy having found enough blood and flesh. In this story there is a baron who is the richest and said to be the wisest man in the lands the baron has but one daughter. A beautiful daughter who is said to be the most beautiful in the land, his daughter is guided into woman hood by two women and two of his aunties are responsible for her behavior. The baron was satisfied with all nature had given him and when the time came he and a far away friend had arranged that his young daughter was to be married to a certain groom. A young man count von Altenburg had been awarded this position and was recalled from the army for this very reason (Irving 18). He was on his way to come and take the bride but he was detained. The count on his way died due to an unfortunate incident and with his last breath he asked his friend go give word of his demise that he wo uld have made it to the castle to take his bride had it not been for the unfortunate event of his death. The story at its ending is perfectly happy but the bridegroom died and she couldnt have her so desired wedding. It is a good example of the writers approach to writing because it depicts what the writer was best known for writing (Irving 18). He was a writer who wrote short stories the best and he was good at showing off the culture he had learnt from the English and other people in his stories which is exactly what the stories here are showing. These stories all depict the authors autobiography in many ways. First the authors tendency to write stories about faraway lands can be attributed to his part of life that was lived in the lands far away from his own motherlands. In rip van winkle he might not have expressly written about the Dutchh lands but the culture the story depicts is that of the Dutch with the games and even the names of the characters. This follows in all the other stories. The fact that he is writing about the Dutch can be attributed to his parents being Dutch. It was the culture he had been raised in and the culture he understood best. It is worth noticing that by this time American culture was still developing and there had not been established a common precedent on what the culture was to be like (Irving 19). He also wrote most of the time or at least in the stories cited about a man leaving or coming back from a distant place. In van winkle if was a deep sleep that created the distance, in sleepy hollow it was mysterious disappearance and in Spector bridegroom the man was to come from a far away land. The men in his stories just like him never stay in the same place not until the very end just like him when he settled in Sunnyside New York. Also just like him when the men come back from where they were they are accepted with open arms like heroes. The works of the man have a theme to them in that in all his stories used in this essay there is the occurrence of ghosts (Irving 19). There also is a theme of love and something that is lost that can never be found or given back. In rip van winkle the poor man looses time in his life and his wife dies. In sleepy hollow a man has lost his head and is in the relentless pursuit to find it and the main character is forever lost of his chance to love the woman he desires when he is run out of town by the headless horseman. In Spector bride losses her groom to death and the groom losses his life in all the stories the theme of loss is apparent. The stories are stories of men who lived their lives with freedom and who were men of their word (Irving 26). The men depicted in the stories are men who have both fortune and misfortune it is a show of life as it is and not of life as it should be. This stories better show the state of life at the times they were written. Living by the day and chasing after what looked right to a person. The stories are of those times that the commoner had first experienced true freedom. It is only in one story where we see a compromise to the loss that is suffered and that is in Specters bridegroom. Also in all the stories there is a theme of war where it is all written in or shortly after war time. Or in the case of rip van winkle before and after war time it is probably because during the time this book was written there was war (Irving 44). Buy custom American Literature essay

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Buy a Term Paper

Buy a Term Paper Buy a Term Paper Buy a Term Paper How to buy a term paper online? It may appear very simple at the first glance. All you need to do is to find a link to the order form, fill in all required fields and wait for your completed term paper. Nevertheless, at the closer look, it becomes apparent that in order to buy a term paper and not to waste your money and nerves, you should pay attention to several factors. Let's take a look at a couple of issues you should take into account. If you do not know how to write a term paper and looking for term paper help , you have found the right place to get it! Term Paper Topic A term paper topic may be easy to write about or challenging. If you have an opportunity to decide on term paper topic, you have a full freedom to explore your own interests and write an impressive paper without any problems. Nevertheless, we have noticed that students who want to buy a term paper often do not have a topic. For example, our clients write something like this: "I want to buy a term paper writing about unemployment". Unemployment is a broad topic and if no additional instruction is provided, you may end up with getting a term paper which does not suit your needs or specifics of the course. Therefore, be sure to provide a detailed instruction when you buy a term paper. Number of pagesIf you need to buy a term paper, you should know the exact number of pages. Please consult your teacher or lecturer on this issue. if you do not know how many pages you need, what should the writer do? DeadlinesIf you buy a term paper, you should include a specific deadline. The longer the deadline the lower the price for your term paper writing. Be very attentive while choosing a deadline. Otherwise, you may get your term paper late. Buy a Term Paper Online It is a real challenge to choose professional term paper writing service online. Today, when the number of fraudulent sites is impressive and students feel lost in the wealth of services, it is increasingly difficult to select truly professional term paper writers online. We do not make empty promises. We simply deliver high quality content written from scratch. Our clients know that their money and time are not wasted. We do not miss deadlines. We do not hire ESL writers. We do not double charge you. We can write a custom term paper for you on all possible term paper topics! By the way, outline for a term paper is delivered for free!

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Inland Barge Operation In Europe and China Research Paper

Inland Barge Operation In Europe and China - Research Paper Example In Europe and China, there have been significant advancements in the three forms of transportation. Rail transport has evolved over time and technological advancements have made the system more efficient and economical (Rodrigue, 2010). Most countries in these regions have developed an extensive railway network that traverses the area. Thus, rail transport is widely used for passenger and cargo transportation throughout the two regions as well us to regions. On the other hand, road transport is also widely used in the European and Chinese regions. The road network in Europe is extensive and covers virtually all the corners of the region. According to (Vrenken et al, 2005), the road network in Europe has the best roads globally with tarmacked roads covering over seventy percent of the region. Suffice to say, there are numerous road transport companies that own trucks used for delivery of cargo. The road transport system has been widely adopted in China due to its affordability and eff iciency. Long haul trucks are used to deliver cargo from all the areas in China. The truck transport system is efficiently due to precise coordination between the track companies and the warehouses where the cargo is taken from or delivered to. However, the road and rail cargo transportation systems have various weaknesses. ... Also, the two modes of transport are costly due to the high cost of fuel. Inland barge transportation is a viable alternative for the transportation of cargo. The use of boats and other water transport vessels for the transportation of cargo within the region can help to sustain the development in these regions and add other benefits. This paper argues that inland barge transportation is a more efficient mode of cargo transportation compared to road and rail transportation. This research therefore seeks to determine the use of inland barges in transportation in the two regions and the level of contribution of this type of transportation in each of the regions. In doing this, the research examines the advantages and the disadvantages of the transport systems and the extent to which it has contributed to the attainment of the modern state of the economy in the regions. The inland barge transport system will be evaluated in both regions and the contribution that it has made to the devel opment of the regions. The potential benefits of the inland barge transportation system will be analyzed. Furthermore, the discourse compares the transport mechanism in the two regions and further compares the level of development and the growth rate of the regions. In doing this, the research establishes the contribution of transportation to the process of development and determines the most cost effective means of transportation for the two regions and the whole world by extrapolation. Cargo transportation The transport sector forms a critical component of any region. In fact, an efficient transport network is often a pointer towards the level of development that is possible in a region. Industrial advancements require

I would like you to distinguish between the four of the five major Essay

I would like you to distinguish between the four of the five major sentencing philosophies - Essay Example The philosophy has played a huge role in minimizing the level of crime throughout the world. This is due to strict laws on those caught taking part in crime. The philosophy has also experienced a lot of criticism whereby many people claim there is a lot of biasness in the ruling of sentences (Carlsmith 437). The main objective of the study is ensuring that there is gradual decline on the level of crime both locally and internationally. This is because through establishment of retribution philosophy, there is a decline in the rate of crime since most people are afraid of the harsh punishments that arrested criminals receive. The deterrence philosophy prevents criminals from indulging in crime again. This is normally after they have received severe punishment for a crime they committed in the past (Caersmith 438). Apart from deterring them from ever indulging in such crimes a gain, the philosophy also prevents other criminals from participating in crime since they would not wish to experience such punishments, which are normally severe. The philosophy was established after nations realized that some people normally go back to their past criminal activities after completing their sentence. This is when nations unanimously came up with the idea of imposing harsh punishments on those that will be caught breaking the law (Carlsmith 438). The deterrence philosophy has resulted to a decline in the level of past criminals returning to crime after completing their sentence. Unfortunately, some of the punishments imposed on the criminals are normally harsh to the extent that the person never recovers from the trauma even after leaving the correction center (Carlsmith 439). The main goal behind the deterrence philosophy is prevent the number of people taking part in criminal activities. This is because the philosophy principles are so strict and harsh to the extent that nobody wishes to be caught breaking the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Consider the ways in which actual readers may deviate from the role Essay

Consider the ways in which actual readers may deviate from the role assigned them as implied readers and why this happens. Make very specific and detailed reference to the texts and make use of quotations - Essay Example Written by Chinua Achebe, it is regarded as the seminal novel within African literature. Achebe has said that he wrote his famous book, at least in part, because of the anger he felt at being made to read Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Cary's Mister Johnson in colonial schools. The latter features a slavish African who adores his white boss so much that he is gladly shot to death by him. In the former, white men go insane because of the 'heart" of the "darkness" revealed by Africa and Africans. In Things Fall Apart Achebe intends to speak to an implied reader who has read books similar to the ones he was made to read in high school. Achebe assumes a knowledge of Africa based upon books such as these, and then turns that "knowledge" on its head by giving the African viewpoint. Colonization had a profound effect upon many parts of the now developing world. Formulated as part economic expansion and part assertion of supposedly superior values and culture by mainly European countries, the effects of colonization were similarly varied. Colonial areas essentially became vassals of their colonial masters. Their economic riches were taken for the good of the colonists and old customs often subsumed within the changes brought about by European education of the elite and the attempts of missionaries to convert the local people to Christianity. Achebe is attempting to put the reader in the shoes of the Africans being influenced by these policies rather than, as is more normal within literature, in the position of the Europeans. In 1914, Lord Frederick Lugard, the governor of the British territories in Nigeria united areas in the North and South of the country into a single colony, thus creating "Nigeria" at a stroke. This was a common occurrence: countries were essentially just drawn on a map with little attention paid to natural geographical, cultural or tribal boundaries. It also played into the idea that all Africans were somehow the 'same': that is, primitive, innately stupid and dangerous unless treated with a carefully harsh hand. There were no differences in culture to the colonial's eyes, or if there were, they were insignificant as the Africans were just "natives" first and members of individual and contrasting groups second. In Things Falling Apart the author takes this tendency to see all Africans as a homogenous whole and turns it on its head. He suggests that Africans are almost as responsible for their lowly state as the colonial powers because they essentially buy into the idea of their supposedly primitive nature. If Africans are not interested in their history and culture, then how can they expect colonial powers to be In the book an attempt is made to show native African culture as complex and sophisticated with various traditions that date back centuries. But this culture was essentially dwarfed and overwhelmed by unimpeded contact with Western culture. Take the example of the Oba leaders called Afins. Under colonialism their wealth tended to disintegrate because their economic system had changed so rapidly. They could no longer benefit from free labor and the chief was no longer allowed to impound properties. The Oba could not support large numbers of wives, children and servants. The Afins were often forced to shut down their large houses and to turn to ordinary work. Achebe argues that all too many Africans are willing to accept the European

What Is Modernism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

What Is Modernism - Essay Example The essay "What Is Modernism" analyzes modernism movement. Every change is guided by unique principals for this case modernism involved a break from indigenous traditions and continual progression. Modernists celebrated intelligence, radical thinking and creativity because these were the abilities of mankind furthermore, they did not fall captive of indigenous limits. Realism period involved art that painted the subject exactly as it was, for example, Edouard Manet painted a French courtesan ‘Olympia’ bold, brash and unashamed. This was the first time that artists broke from traditional standards. Impressionism followed where artists painted impressions of the actual subjects. What they portrayed is a distinction between what they see and that which the brain processes, bringing out the impact of scientific knowledge on art. From this period, the ‘isms’ poured forth, which involved post-impressionism, fauvism and cubism. Artists utilized every opportunity to break loose from commonly held teachings and techniques. Modernism had well renowned and prolific artists like Salvador Dali, Pablo Picasso, George Seurat and Marcel Duchamp just but to mention a few. Modernism encompassed nearly the whole of 20th century art; it is now easy to understand why modernism is a significant point of discussion by art critics and historians. Well, viewing modernism from a different angle, it’s not all about painting. There are other disciplines as Music, philosophy, literature and sculpture, the list is long.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Sources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sources - Essay Example New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. McAllister-Spooner, S. M. (2009). Fulfilling the dialogic promise: A ten-year reflective survey on dialogic Internet principles. Public Relations Review, 320-322. This article begins with a discussion of the framework of dialogic communication using the world-wide-web provided by Kent and Taylor. The literature suggests that various studies have been conducted in order to analyze the use of dialogic communication in various websites. It goes on to state that even non-profit firms have applied this concept to their websites. However, the author critiques this by stating that dialogic tools were indeed very poorly applied in the development of these websites. The websites mentioned in this article provide only a basic level platform for interaction with users. They are user-friendly and useful in providing information but they fail to capitalize on the Internet’s ability to develop and sustain relationships between the corporation and the community. The research findings are also suggestive of the fact that forces pertaining to the corporation and its departments are inhibiting the utilization of the Internet’s interactive potential. The article relates to dialogic communication as it critiques the use of this concept by stating that its practical application is weak when it comes to the way some websites are designed. Thus, the use of web medium for reaching out to the public has not been capitalized on by corporations in a manner that would be engaging. The article concludes by offering recommendations in this regard by suggesting that face-to-face communication will remain an ideal platform for ensuring dialogic interaction. Also, dialogic communication is hampered by internal policies and inert forces such as organizational politics. Thus, developing effective public relations via the internet requires effective dialogic communication. Mifsud, M. L., & Johnson, S. D. (2000). Dialogic, dialectic, and rhetoric: Explor ing human dialogue across the discipline. Southern Communication Journal , 91-104. Newcomb, H. M. (1984). On the dialogic aspects of mass communication. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 34-50. Ryan, J., & Viete, R. (2009). Respectful interactions: learning with international students in the English-speaking academy. Teaching in Higher Education, 303-314. This paper describes the significance of dialogic or two-way human interactions in promoting English education to international students. It begins by stating that students who come from abroad to study in Australian educational institutions face cultural and linguistic issues which results in their getting disengaged from what is being taught in the classroom. The native-speaker phenomenon in English universities dissuades non-native speakers from effectively learning what is being taught. Owing to these cultural and linguistic differences, the method of teaching offered to such international students must be more interactiv e and engaging than that offered to native students. In this sense, the authors define the need for a more dialogic and engaging communication between the instructors and the international students. What is core to learning in Australian institutions is the diverse potential of learning that comes from a multi-cultural student body. Despite the accommodation of global aspects into the institutions’ curricula, foreign students repeatedly face deficiencies in their oral communication as well as the pressure to conform to the norms inherent in local bodies.

The Epic of Gilgamesh Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

The Epic of Gilgamesh - Essay Example When he finds this immortal man, Gilgamesh is given two chances at immortality but fails in both quests noticing in his return to Uruk that mortal men have found their own means of immortality through works of art and civilization. As the summary proves, Tablet's XI main theme is human concern on mortality and immortality. Human search of immortality, a theme that has impregnated thousands literary works, is shown in the Tablet through its imagery. As for example, the exhaustive description of Uruk's wall. In this description of Uruk's walls, Gilgamesh shows his audience the strength of the same by pointing the quality materials used to make it. He also focus on its age by referring to ancient characters like the Seven Sages, an idea further emphasized by the repetitions found in this excerpt, which also appears word by word in Tablet I. This strong wall symbolizes man's victory over time and death thus leading mortal people to a kind of immortality achieved through their surviving works (art and civilization). The secondary theme, survival, is closely related with immortality, as men fight against nature/gods (symbolized by the storm) to prevent their own death. This is easily seen in the imagery of the storm described in Utanapishtim flashback story of the Flood. In spite of the fury of gods' storm (or nature in other cases), Utanapishtim and his men manage to survive thus breaking their fate of mortality. For having won their fight against the Flood, those men are rewarded with immortality, only preserved to gods or heroes. Finally, also related with the main theme of immortality by opposition, appears the theme of death. Death, personified, is an evil character that prevents Gilgamesh to fulfil his destiny; death prosecutes him and is always with him, as is shown in this hyperbole. "The Snatcher has taken hold of my flesh, in my bedroom Death wells, and wherever I set foot there too is Death!" (257-59, Tablet XI, The Epic of Gilgamesh) Death is shown as an evil character who is not easily deceived as it happens with Gilgamesh that fails his both chances at immortality, first by falling asleep and second by losing the opportunity to become young again. So in the case of Gilgamesh, death wins the battle as he finally succumbs to its clutches. But he and his people will be always remembered by the strong wall that have constructed around the city. However, the literary devices are not only used in relation with the themes but also with other purposes such as memorization,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Sources Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sources - Essay Example New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. McAllister-Spooner, S. M. (2009). Fulfilling the dialogic promise: A ten-year reflective survey on dialogic Internet principles. Public Relations Review, 320-322. This article begins with a discussion of the framework of dialogic communication using the world-wide-web provided by Kent and Taylor. The literature suggests that various studies have been conducted in order to analyze the use of dialogic communication in various websites. It goes on to state that even non-profit firms have applied this concept to their websites. However, the author critiques this by stating that dialogic tools were indeed very poorly applied in the development of these websites. The websites mentioned in this article provide only a basic level platform for interaction with users. They are user-friendly and useful in providing information but they fail to capitalize on the Internet’s ability to develop and sustain relationships between the corporation and the community. The research findings are also suggestive of the fact that forces pertaining to the corporation and its departments are inhibiting the utilization of the Internet’s interactive potential. The article relates to dialogic communication as it critiques the use of this concept by stating that its practical application is weak when it comes to the way some websites are designed. Thus, the use of web medium for reaching out to the public has not been capitalized on by corporations in a manner that would be engaging. The article concludes by offering recommendations in this regard by suggesting that face-to-face communication will remain an ideal platform for ensuring dialogic interaction. Also, dialogic communication is hampered by internal policies and inert forces such as organizational politics. Thus, developing effective public relations via the internet requires effective dialogic communication. Mifsud, M. L., & Johnson, S. D. (2000). Dialogic, dialectic, and rhetoric: Explor ing human dialogue across the discipline. Southern Communication Journal , 91-104. Newcomb, H. M. (1984). On the dialogic aspects of mass communication. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 34-50. Ryan, J., & Viete, R. (2009). Respectful interactions: learning with international students in the English-speaking academy. Teaching in Higher Education, 303-314. This paper describes the significance of dialogic or two-way human interactions in promoting English education to international students. It begins by stating that students who come from abroad to study in Australian educational institutions face cultural and linguistic issues which results in their getting disengaged from what is being taught in the classroom. The native-speaker phenomenon in English universities dissuades non-native speakers from effectively learning what is being taught. Owing to these cultural and linguistic differences, the method of teaching offered to such international students must be more interactiv e and engaging than that offered to native students. In this sense, the authors define the need for a more dialogic and engaging communication between the instructors and the international students. What is core to learning in Australian institutions is the diverse potential of learning that comes from a multi-cultural student body. Despite the accommodation of global aspects into the institutions’ curricula, foreign students repeatedly face deficiencies in their oral communication as well as the pressure to conform to the norms inherent in local bodies.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Customer Driven Quality Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Customer Driven Quality - Research Paper Example One of the driving factors for this trend is the "impact of competition" (Burrill and Ledolter, 1999, pg. 523). The second major factor is the ISO 9000 system of standards. These standards provide a baseline by which processes and organizations are checked. The organizations strive to achieve certification as a stamp of approval. The final factor is quality awards. Companies compete to earn the highly visible quality awards. Not only do these awards make a statement about the organization, but these needs will have leverage in marketing campaigns (Burrill and Ledolter, 1999, pg. 523). The major factors that help define the value of quality have been presented. The next phase is to tie these factors to customer satisfaction. Greater levels of competition provide a catalyst to force companies to keep improving products or services. Consumers can generally choose from one of many companies to meet needs. One way for a company to keep customers is to provide a much greater level of satisfaction. The manufacturing industry will be used to illustrate this example. Automotive manufacturing is a $484 billion industry (Yahoo! Finance, 2007). Quality plays a major role in the success of this business. According to industry data Toyota is currently at the top of the market capitalization with $228.3 billion. Toyota takes both employee's and customer seriously when it comes to satisfaction. Toyota vehicles are in the top five in both the Midsize Car Initial Quality and Midsize Car Reliability awards from JD Power (JD Power, 2007). These examples of quality awards and the financial standing in the industry provide evidence of Toyota's value of quality being important. Consumer trends show the importance of fuel efficient vehicles that are still safe and fun to drive. Industry trends cited record-level gas prices for the beginning of the trend toward more fuel efficient vehicles. The forecast for the 2006 model year showed Japanese Big Three (Honda, Nissan, and Toyota) continuing to capture market shares. Customer needs were being met by these companies. Fuel efficient and hybrid vehicles were being manufactured with attention to quality (Edmunds, 2007). The manufacturers spotted the trend and produced quality vehicles that met the customer's needs. Toyota maintains quality at all levels of the company. This method allows Toyota to garner the best input from every employee. Special attention is paid to Toyota's methods for gathering input from all employees. "Toyota receives 4,000,000 ideas from its 80,000 employees. Since over 95% are implemented, this is over forty-six implemented ideas per employee per year" (Wadsworth, Stephens, and Godfrey, 2002, pg. 92). Toyota leverages the knowledge each employee gains while performing job functions. This allows for a close check to be kept on the quality of the products being manufactured. Steph Service companies lose millions of dollars when failures become repetitive. The failures result in redesign costs, liabilities, and transaction costs (Free Quality, 2007). Much of the business lost as a result of failures is the most serious cost and causes customer defection. The task that service companies must provide is error-free services. Error-free service becomes challenging due to subjective

Monday, October 14, 2019

With Each Moment, Comes Great Triumph Essay Example for Free

With Each Moment, Comes Great Triumph Essay It is inherent to say that each of us refers back to memories of our childhood to reminisce in the awkward, comical and daunting experiences and discover parallelisms to our present existence. Rohinton Mistry writes of the parallel fears of water and swimming from childhood to adulthood and of overcoming, slowly but surely, a seemingly trivial act. The imagery and memory of water, specifically, is a key theme throughout the story. Mistry writes of the symbolism and meaning of water for the character in a philosophical way through self-exploring questions and recollections. The thought and discussion of taking swimming lessons as an adult gives an opening to memories of attempted swimming lessons and the importance of Chaupatty Beach. â€Å"It seemed that the dirtier it became, the more crowds it attracted†¦ (Or was it the crowds that made it dirtier? )†(260) This distant and uninviting body of water is the starting place for swimming lessons, though quick to be unenthusiastic â€Å"because of the filth†(261) and the ‘guttersnipes’ that taunted and teased the young learner. This causes the reader to remember some aspects of swimming and the experiences of struggling physically, fearing peer pressure, and the unknown of deep water. Mistry is increasingly descriptive of water imagery and moments of memory so these images move off the page and into imagination, allowing the reader to visualise the filth, the struggle and the fear. â€Å"The universal symbol of life and regeneration did nothing but frustrate me. (260) There are numerous symbolic terms and meanings for water where water is cleansing, type of renewal, or a connection between symbolic life and death. When the first adult swimming lesson is attempted, there is a feeling of hopelessness and terror. The character is weighed with emotion and burdened with dispelled expectation. â€Å"The swimming pool, like Chaupatty beach, has produced a stillbirth. †(263) The character is beyond disappointment when he realises his expectation of triumph emerges into a symbol of death. Failure to swim through filth must mean something other than failure to rebirth – failure of symbolic death? †(264) This question is posed as much for the reader as they are for the character. There is a need to answer for the character so he might come to the realisation that there is more to life than being imprisoned by the failed attempts, to press on, move forward and endeavour to reach your goal. The character eventually becomes in a way reborn through his seemingly ordinary experience in the bathtub and the human nature of anting to overcome a fear. We relate to the idea of feeling reborn when overcoming the anxiety of particular obstacles on our lives. Finally, at his own pace, he realises he must fight his panic and fear of water as he has seen â€Å"the world outside the water†¦ it is now time to see what is inside. †(270) He sees with a changed perspective, his eyes are opened to the opportunities that he is yet to face and eventually triumph.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Background and history of intelligence testing

Background and history of intelligence testing The first intelligence test to be administered was in France in 1905 by Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon. The purpose of the first intelligence test was to identify mentally deficient children in French public Schools (Franklin 2007). Henry Goddard followed and, translated the intelligence test in 1910, and administered it to what he believed were four hundred children who lacked intellectuality and following year the number of students increased to two thousand white children considered normal. (Franklin 2007). In 1911 Goddard was to produce a range of scores that was to be compared to urban, native born foreign born, and others. Suggesting that children cannot learn beyond the scope of their grade of intelligence and was the first to suggest that intelligence tests measured the how much a child was capable of learning at a chronological age (Franklin 2007). Since these tests, an array of intelligence test has been administered to people in attempts to measure a person cognitive abi lity. Assessing students abilities through intelligence testing has questioned of the appropriateness of psychometric measures in regards to reliability and validity. Reliability regarding relies on consistency. For a test to be able to show consistency, error variance must be minimized. Test construction, test administration and test scoring and interpretation are the main three areas of error variance that can affect reliability (Cohen and Swerdilk 2010). It was argued , Simon Binets test needed to be revised in 1937 because the test originally administered in 1917 showed tasks not always as well chosen s those for ages from six to twelve and that upon retesting black students social scientist had shown that black students had received a higher intelligence score(Franklin 2007) . Regarding validity, in the early 1920s black social scientists debated what intelligence testing was measuring. Validity should be psychometrically sound to avoid test bias. Howard Longs research shows the Armys Alpha and Beta test yielded results that were greater in variation of individuals and groups within races than between races (Franklin 2007). Bond a director of Education at Langston University in Oklahoma also agreed explaining that the army intelligence score were a reflection of social and environmental impacts rather than innate intellectual abilities of those tested (Franklin 2007). The Brisbane Catholic Education, concentrated on refugees that seemed to be misrepresented as having an intellectual disability. The argument is that the validity of standardized cognitive tests is not able to measure peoples intelligence from a different background and implying that psychometric instruments had not yet been developed in their country (Fraine and Mcdade). Tests that were stan dardized to certain background schooling experience, level and quality of education and conceptions of behavior test taking experience would affect certain groups if taken the intelligence test(Fraine and Mcdade). There has been problem in intelligence testing and psychometric properties in relation to non- linguistics intelligence testing. In a study results show that although the Ravens Progressive Matrices is supposed to be a culture fair IQ test people from English speaking backgrounds did much better scoring 96.71 that people from Zimbabwean sample that scored 72.36 (Shuttleworth-Edwards, Kemp, Rust, Muirhead, Hartman, and Radloff 2004). Fairness is also a concern when a person takes an intelligence test. Controlling reliability and validity of a intelligence test shows a sound measurement, fairness aims at explaining the test and if it is used in a justifiable way. African refugees have been described as intellectually disable upon Australian schools. The Brisbane Catholic Education in Australia believes refugees from African backgrounds are labeled intellectually disabled upon completing intelligence test and other assessment of consideration such language barriers, culture difference acculturation trauma and previous experiences make it harder for psychologists to assess whether an African American is genuinely intellectually disabled(Fraine and Mcdade). Similar findings displayed that social conditions and low-test scores were highly correlated when measuring mental ability (Franklin 2007). When testing non -linguistic most children scored in the normal range, however these children were black and placed in a sch ool that separated white children from black children (Franklin 2007). The aim of this study is to check for sound psychometric measurements and culture bias when comparing different groups and the intelligence test taken. It is hypothesized that The PSYGAT will show good internal consistency and validity when tested against the Queendom Verbal. It is hypothesizes that the PSYGAT will show low when tested against the culture fair test. The Queendom tests are a verbal and a culture fair IQ test that are believed to have psychometric properties. The PSYGAT is a intelligence verbal test that was created by third year undergraduate psychology students. The PSYGAT was correlated well with the ACER AL a test that was designed by the Australian Council for Education for testing verbal abilities. Method Participants The sample consisted of three hundred and thirty seven undergraduate psychology students recruited from Monash University. Participants were recruited from campuses located at Singapore, Malaysia, South Africa, Clayton, and Caulfield. Participants were split into English speaking background and non-English speaking backgrounds. There were two hundred and sixty females and sixty-eight males. Two hundred and forty four participants were from an English Speaking background and ninety-three participants were from a Non English Speaking background. Materials Participants engaged in taking three intelligence tests. The tests were to be taken in their own time under no supervision. Participants used the computer to complete the three intelligence tests. Just before beginning the PSYGAT intelligence test a questionnaire asked the participants of the sex age and whether they were from an English or non- English speaking background. All participants results would be analyzed at a later stage regarding item analysis. Procedure Undergraduate monash psychology students were asked to complete three intelligence tests that would be administered via computer. Firstly, every participant found access to a computer to participate in the first intelligence test. The first test that was taken was the Queendom Verbal IQ test. Participants attempted the three tests it in their own time and were told that the test should take them approximately 30-35 minutes to complete. After Participants finished the test, they were asked to make sure to keep a track of their score, as they needed the results for later purposes. The second test was the Queendom Culture Fair IQ test. The test involved answering 20 items that participants were told there was no time limits on this test. After completion of this test, participants kept a record of their score. The third test was the PSYGAT. The PSYGAT was a verbal test constructed by third year undergraduate students. Participants were also asked to complete this test as the third and l ast test. Before beginning, the test participants were asked to enter the scores of the Queendom verbal and Queendom culture fair IQ test before continuing to be tested on the PSYGAT verbal IQ test. The test also asked participants of their age and gender and if they were of English or from a Non English background. Results Pearsons r investigated the relationship between the PSYGAT test, Queendom verbal IQ and the Queendom culture fair IQ for English and non-English speaking backgrounds. Pearsons r showed that that there was a significant result according to the relationship of the PSYGAT and Queendom verbal in both the English speaking background group ,r=.433,n=244,p0.05 but a small significant relationship between the PSYGAT and the Queendom culture fair for the non English speaking background group , r=.238,n 93,p0.05. Z scores were also used to determine if there was a significant difference in validity coefficients between the two groups regarding the PSYGAT and Queendom verbal and the PSYGAT and culture fair IQ. Pearsons r-values were transformed into Z scores to determine a statistical significance of the correlations between groups. Pearsons r-values were also transformed into z scores because of participant difference for each group. Results show that there was not a statistical significant d ifference in validity coefficients between the English and non English speaking background of the correlation between the PSYGAT and the Queendom verbal IQ z=-1.39,p>0.05. However a large statistical significance was shown in the correlation between the PSYGAT and the culture fair IQ z=3.73, p> 0.05. Discussion The aim of this study was to check for sound psychometric measurments and culture bias when comparing different groups and the intelligence test taken. It was hypothesized that the PSYGAT and the Queendom verbal would show no statistical significance in validity coefficients between the English speaking groups and non-English speaking groups. It was also hypothesized that there would be a statistical significance in validity coefficient between the PSYGAT verbal and the Queendom culture fair. The study showed that there was weak validity regarding the PSYGAT and Culture Fair IQ tests. Although there was The results of the study-undertaken reveal that intelligence tests can show bias of different groups. These biases from this study can be related to lack of understanding cultural backgrounds as well as using relevant psychometric measures, which can be linked to low validity in intelligence tests. Bonds argument that social and environmental differences in groups can affect test scores are may suggest similarities within this study in regards to the social setting and environment of participants that took the test. The Intelligence and School Achievement of Negro Children also showed that social conditions were highly correlated with low-test score (Franklin 2007). The results from this study show a significant statistical result between groups for the PSYGAT and culture fair test suggesting that social and environmental differences upon taking the test could have caused bias. In addition, The Brisbane Catholic Education argues that psychologists assessing refugees for intellectual abilities may show bias in their assessment due to lack of proper interpretation (Fraine and Mcdade). That is background-schooling experience, level and quality of education and conceptions of behavior test taking experience can reduce a test score for a certain type of group (Fraine and Mcdade). Th is Study could have affected one group more than another because of such factors. Suggestion of having psychometric instruments that can measure intelligence scores for different types of groups should also be developed in both countries to reduce bias in regards to cultural differences. In this case, Intelligence tests need to have psychometric properties that can be valid for analyzing score between different groups Cohen and Swerdilk 2010). Similar findings were found when people from English speaking background and non-English speaking backgrounds were tested on their IQ. Results show that although the Ravens Progressive Matrices is supposed to be a culture fair IQ test people from English speaking backgrounds did much better scoring 96.71 that people from Zimbabwean sample that scored 72.36 (Shuttleworth-Edwards, Kemp, Rust, Muirhead, Hartman, and Radloff 2004). Zindi also suggests that lack of westernized test sophistication may be the cause for lower scores (Shuttleworth-Edwards, Kemp, Rust, Muirhead, Hartman, and Radloff 2004). This study may have contribu ted to some cultural bias in regards to scores because of one of the test may not have been up to standards in regards to psychometric measures regarding content validity. The limitations in this study could have affected the results. Firstly, the way the three tests were administered could have yielded different intelligence scores for both the groups. Supervising the test takers making sure that the tests were taken without any aid of books or other people could change the results, which could have yielded different interpretation of the validity of the tests. In addition, although there was good internal reliability between the groups the large difference in participants could have changed the chronbachs alpha to either a higher or a lower value. Participant range could have also affected the statistical difference between the groups when assessing the PSYGAT and culture fair IQ component of the study. In addition item analyses should also be investigated to check whether the items begin tested are fair to all participants taking the intelligence test. That is one question could portray more than one meaning to different participants taking the test . Cole suggests item analyses is a difficult task because one must ensure that the item being used is relevant in construct therefore affecting bias (Cole 1989).

Saturday, October 12, 2019

student :: essays research papers

Change your mind, choose your mood Magazines, members of the print media family, have entered the twenty-first century in a state of confusion. Although they are still very much ink on paper products, magazines also reaches people on websites, they are exclusively available in digital form on the internet. At the same time, magazine format, which information organized by topic and theme in an entertaining manner, has been borrowed by television. Thus the magazine is a media product, a medium of communication, and a communication format. Understanding what magazines are and how they have evolved from their beginnings is one of the vital things in understanding what they are today. Many people nowadays ask the question: what differentiates a magazine from a newspaper? Actually it is a necessary question, since in contemporary publishing it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the two. Generally, a magazine is a published less frequently than a newspaper. It is also manufactured in a different format; usually on better quality paper, bound rather than merely folded, and with some kind of cover. Magazines today then retain their traditional functions. They are a major medium of surveillance, often delivering information ahead of the rest of the media. Some magazines like Time, are intended mainly to inform and others like Playboy, to entertain. However, among the various functions served by magazines in contemporary society, the most notable is still correlation. This refers to interpreting society and its parts, projecting trends, and explaining the meaning of the news by bringing together fragmented facts. The magazine from which we will be discussing an advertisement is categorized as a consumer magazine, called SHAPE. Shape has a specific target audience, mainly woman trying to live a healthy life. This magazine has all kinds of articles, including low-calorie recipes, methods of exercising and ways to dress to look fit. The types of advertisements they publish are mostly related to health; beauty, skin, food and many more. While skimming through this magazine, an ad cau ght my attention. On a white background, starting from the top going vertically; three simple words combine to from the first half of the slogan: "Change your mind" printed in Times new roman, and in black. Slightly beneath it, a color palette make-up case with five circular colors: lime, orange, green, brown and pink. They are in a metal case, with an eye shadow brush (pinceau).

Friday, October 11, 2019

How to Prevent Obesity Essay

We must stay active. This is an important step in preventing obesity. Join a gym or yoga class to stay slim and trim. Take the stairs or walk to do your chores. Simple steps like these can go a long way in preventing overweight and obesity. Joining a gym or yoga class will help you mingle with like-minded people who can give you valuable tips on how to prevent obesity. We must eat healthy foods.The Food and Drug Administration advises that one must consume about 2,000 calories each day. Ensure that you include legumes, vegetables, fruits, whole grain breads, meats and dairy items. To avoid obesity, your daily calorie intake must not exceed the number of calories expended. So, if you are not an active person, reduce your calorie intake to ensure your weight does not balloon up. We have to Drink Plenty of Water. Many people mistake thirst for hunger and start gorging. Drink plenty of water every day to flush out toxins and impurities from your system. Most health experts advise drinking eight to 10 glasses of water every day. Whenever you feel hungry, first try drinking water and see if that satiates you. Water is thus a great way to combat hunger pangs and ensure you do not overeat. We must eat only when you feel hungry. Research reveals that naturally thin people eat only when they feel hungry. If you do not feel hungry at regular meal time, then cut down your portion size and eat just enough food to keep you satiated and energetic for your daily tasks. Thus to prevent obesity, ensure you start eating only when you feel hungry. Do not store Junk food and soda. Do not keep any stock of junk food in your home. Stocking junk food will always tempt you to take a bite now and then. This can be harmful in the long run. So, be smart and avoid buying junk food in the first place. Similarly, avoid storing soda and sweet fizzy drinks in your fridge. These harmful beverages can also add on the flab and therefore should be avoided at all costs.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Changes in the Dynamics of Pc Industry

Core Competency (CI#1) : Apple design, develop and market numerous product and service lines. They sell their products to education, consumer creative professional, business and government customers. While apple seems to display numerous products and conduct business on different segments, it is legitimate to wonder what the company is really good at? Too much diversity is exactly what crushed Apple during the John Scully days. Cannibalization (CI#2): Through January 2005, Apple has opened 102 retail stores.Although these launches are potentially beneficial, Apple stores are hurting the resellers’ business and not all of them will survive. Considering that the company’s resellers still account for more than 50% of its domestic sales, the company is facing the risk of cannibalization and might deeply suffer. High Cash (CI#3): Why is Apple holding so much cash? Having too much cash in reserve might either mean that the company does not know yet how to allocate it or that they may have some risk concerns about future potential investment.Succession (CI#4): Apple is clearly one of the handful of companies where the fortunes are seen to be intricately tied to the person in charge. The star quality and the visionary talents associated with Steve Jobs are certainly contributed to the success of the company. So the news of Jobs’ cancer surgery might lead to a succession problem and compromise the company’s future. I. CURRENT SITUATION A. CURRENT PERFORMANCE Apple achieved a solid performance for the first quarter of 2005 compared to the same quarter 2004 with strong net sales in the Americas segment (+77%) in Europe (+63%) and in Japan (+18%).The Americas segment represents approximately 47% of the company’s total net sales. The increase in net sales in the Americas, Europe and Japan was primarily driven by increased demand of the iPod and the consumer-oriented iMAC. Demand for the iBook products were especially high for the Americas, while peripherals and other hardware were more popular in Europe. The retail segment’s net sales grew to $561 million as compared to $273 million in the same period in 2004, this represents a remarkable 105% increase. B. SRATEGIC POSTURE MissionApple strives for continuous improvement in our environmental, health and safety management systems and in the environmental quality of our products, processes and services. Apple’s Guiding Principles O Meet or exceed all applicable environmental, health and safety requirements. O Where laws and regulations do not provide adequate controls, Apple will adopt their own standards to protect human health and the environment. O Support and promote sound scientific principles and fiscally responsible public policy that enhance environmental quality, health and safety.O Advocate the adoption of prudent environmental, health and safety principles and practices by their contractors, vendors and suppliers. O Communicate environmental, he alth and safety policies and programs to Apple employees and stakeholders. O Design, manage and operate our facilities to maximize safety, promote energy efficiency and protect the environment. O Strive to create products that are safe in their intended use, conserve energy and materials and prevent pollution throughout the product life cycle including design, manufacture, use and end-of-life management.O Ensure that all employees are aware of their role and responsibility to fulfill and sustain Apple’s environmental, health and safety management systems and policy. Goals O Innovation above everything else. O Increase sales in the education segment. O Produce user friendly, good appearance products to get customers â€Å"think Different† and â€Å"think Digital†. O Developing new digital lifestyle consumer, and professional software application O Investing in new products area such as rack-mount servers, RAID storage system and wireless technologies. O Provide a high quality sales and after sales support experience.Strategy Trough the design and the development of its own operating system, hardware and many software application and technologies, Apple strives to bring to its customers compelling new products and solution with superior ease-of-use, seamless integration and innovative industrial design. Apple currently focus on: O Increasing marketing and advertising investment in order to improve product and brand awareness. O Vertical growth strategy: expand the retail segment by opening more retail stores. (CI#2) O Market opportunities related to digital music distribution and consumer electronic devices, including iPod.O Implement a cost leadership strategy to keep up with the competition and be more affordable for the educational segment. O Continue to be the leader in innovation for new technology by implementing a product differentiation strategy. Policies â€Å"Employee diversity â€Å": This policy is a key component and contribut e to the success of the company. â€Å"We respect these differences and threat them as an additional value that we incorporate in the way we treat other and approach our customers. † Therefore, Apple apply that each employee is fully responsible for understanding and following this policy. Substance policy† O Apple comply with applicable substance legislation worldwide. O monitor and assess new scientific findings on the environmental impact of substances used in Apple products. O educate our supply chain partners and drive innovations within our supply chain to find alternative materials that improve environmental performance. â€Å"Product Take-Back and Recycling Policy† O Producers should provide a means to facilitate environmentally friendly recycling of their products at the end of electronic products’ useful life.O Consumers should select a disposal method for end-of-life electronics products that does not adversely impact the environment. O Governme nts should develop a legal framework and public policies to promote appropriate end-of-life management, including environmentally friendly disposal and recycling. O Materials generated from the recycling of our products should be used as feedstock for new products whenever possible. II. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE A. BOARD OF DIRECTORS The Board consists of 6 members, of which 5 are external directors: Board Member-Occupation Audit and Finance committee Nominating CommitteeCompensation Committee William l V. CampbellChairman Intuit, Inc C Ccc Millard S. DexlerChairman and CEOJ. Crew C C Albert Gore, Jr. Former Vice President of the US C C Steve JobsCEO and Co-founderApple ComputerChairman and CEOPixar Arthur D. LevinsonChairman and CEOGenentech, Inc C Ccc Jerome B. YorkCEOHarwinton Capital Corporation Ccc cc=Chairperson C=Member *Audit and committees members are used to ensure feedback and monitor implementation and compliance. Steve Jobs Co-founder of Apple in 1976, he has played an impor tant role in the development of the personal computer.He also co-founded NeXT Software, inc. and served as CEO until 1997 when NeXT was acquired by Apple. Director since 1997 and currently CEO of Apple and Pixar Animation Studios, Jobs is viewed as a key character for the company. However his strong voice and personality within the company could give him the power to sway the board. (internal) (Advantage/Conflict? ) CI#4 William V. Campbell Director of Apple since 1997, he was also the former CEO and president of Intuit, Inc. Mr. Campbell also serves on the board of directors of Opsware, Inc.His experience and knowledge in business, finance and technology might be valuable for the company, however, he is in direct competition with Apple in the sale of software such as Quickbook. (External) (Conflict) Millard S. Dexler Director of Apple since 1999, he has been Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of J. Crew Group, Inc. since March 2003. Previously, Mr. Drexler was Chief Executive Off icer of Gap Inc. from 1995 and President from 1987 until September 2002. (External) Albert Gore, Jr Director since 2003, he was a former Vice President of the United States of America.He has remained an active leader in technology, launching a public/private effort to wire every classroom and library in America to the Internet. Therefore, Gore plays a key role in the implementation of Apple’s products in the educational segment. (External) (advantage) Arthur D. Levinson Director since 2000, he has been President, Chief Executive Officer and a director of Genentech Inc. since July 1995. Mr. Levinson’s experience could benefit apple but his interest may be somewhere else. (External) (Advantage/Conflict? ) Jerome B. York Director since 1997, he is also a director of Tyco International Ltd. nd Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. Previously, Mr. York was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of MicroWarehouse, Inc. , a reseller of computer hardware, software and peripheral products an d he also served as a Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of IBM Corporation. Mr. York’s experience in the computer industry might be a big pro for the company. (External) ( Advantage) The Board of Apple is composed of a very diverse group of professionals who bring valuable expertise in the areas of technology, biotechnology, finance, turnaround strategies, retail business management, etc.The backgrounds and current â€Å"independent† positions of these members provide a wealth of knowledge and a variety of business perspectives for Apple. However the external activities of some of the members of the board might also be a source of conflict for the company. B. Top Management & Management Style 1) Fred D. Anderson-Executive Vice President and CFO 2) Timothy D. Cook-Executive Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Operations 3) Nancy R. Heinen-Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary 4) Ronald B. Johnson, Senior Vice President, Retail ) Peter Oppe nheimer, Senior Vice President of Finance and Corporate Controller 6) Jonathan Rubinstein, Senior Vice President, Hardware Engineering 7) Philip W. Schiller, Senior Vice President , Worldwide Product Marketing [pic]Vertrand Serlet, Ph. D. -Senior Vice President, Software Engineering 9) Sina Tamaddon, Senior Vice President, Applications 10) Avadis Tevanian, Jr. , Ph. D. -Senior Vice President, Chief Sofware Technology Officer C. Management Style Despite the fact that the company claims to have a partnership management style, I personally believe that Steve Jobs is leading an entrepreneurial style and highly influence the company. CI#4) III. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT SCAN A. SOCIETAL ENVIRONMENT 1) Political-Legal Forces O Different countries have different legislations and these in some ways restrict the companies or give opportunities to the company. O NAFTA, European Union and other regional trade open doors to market in Europe, Asia, Latin America that offer enormous potential. O Polit ical uncertainties caused by terrorism activities are directly impacting the overall business of the company. O The company relies on access to patent and intellectual property obtained from third parties.The company might unknowingly encounter infringe issues with existing patents of others. O Beatles lawsuit against the company may negatively affect the company’s reputation. O The company has to comply with the environment regulations such as environment safe disposal or recycling. 2) Socio-Cultural Forces O The computer and internet usage is growing worldwide and is a good source of opportunities for the computer industry. O Customers had become more experienced and computer literate. O Education has become a primordial issue for the new generation, which is a key factor for the company’s business. 3) EconomicO In the past year, the industry has been affected by the slow economic and that resulted in low consumer spending. However the current economy shows some sign of improvement, consumer spending and investment might increase as well. O Due to weak economic conditions, the U. S. educational is encountering large budget deficits in many states. This factor has a negative impact over Apple’s sales in the educational segment. O Sales of products that include components obtained from foreign suppliers can be adversely affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations and by international trade regulations (tariffs and antidumping penalties). ) Technology O Technology is evolving at a rapid pace today ,and people appreciate more & more advances in their systems and are switching over to new information appliances. O Internet availability and usage is growing and leads to good opportunities for the industry. O The traditional desktop might become outdated by the entrance of new revolutionary products. O Increasing demand for new technology in schools and professionals. B. TASK ENVIRONMENT Threat of New Entrants: O Medium to High – In the PC market any firm that discovers a new technology that is efficient in terms of price & performance is an immediate threat to the industry.However, Established standards, start-up costs and established brands names (Intel, Windows) are difficult to overcome for a new entrant. Threat of substitute products: O High – The new forms of Information appliance like Digital TV / HDTV Digital set- top box & Internet screen phones are gaining increasing popularity this might hamper the growth of the PC industry as a whole. Bargaining power of suppliers: O High – Since the industry is highly dependent on component suppliers, a powerful supplier could exert pressure on the market, by supplying components at a higher price to increase his profits.Since Apple is working only with few selected suppliers, the company is running at a higher risk than the average. Bargaining power of buyers: O Low – Due to high number of other suppliers in the industry the customer has the o ptions to take the cheapest and the best. Rivalry among competition: O High – Competition among the giants is fierce, everyone aiming for a larger market share ,intensive price cuts & changes. IV. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT SCAN A. CORPORATE STRUCTURE Apple is organized along functional lines. Apple is structured primarily on a geographic basis.The company’s reporting operating segment are comprised of: 1. The Americas 2. Europe, Middle East and Africa 3. Japan 4. Other: Asia-Pacific (Australia, Asia, and the subsidiary FileMaker, Inc. ) B. CORPORATE CULTURE O Commitment to innovation and product quality O Dedication to hard work and education O Commitment to diversity and to empowering employees O Commitment to safety and conservation of the environment/energy Steve Jobs has a huge impact in the company’s culture. Since Job’s return in 1997, the company has reinvented itself with an array of different colors and styles of computers.The introduction of the Ipod and Itunes largely position the company as an innovative leader. C. CORPORATE RESOURCES 1. ) Marketing Mix a. ) Product Apple is committed to sell original, good looking products that have an easy-to-use interface. The company offers a range of personal computing products, related devices and peripherals, and various third party hardware-products. In addition, the company offers software products (Mac OS X), server software and related solution; professional application software; and consumer, education and business oriented application software.Apple has been very innovative by finding new usages for its Macintosh computer, such as desktop publishing and strong graphics/animation capabilities. The Macintosh’s functionality for managing multimedia files from cameras, DV recorder and MP3 devices has been very popular and successful. The new introduction of Apple’s iPod and the iTune has revolutionize the digital music industry. b. ) Place Apple’s operating segme nt are comprised of: O U. S. O South America O Europe O Japan O Australia. Recently Apple chose to implement a vertical growth strategy and began xpanding their own retail stores. (CI#2) The company also sells its product via third-parties dealers, or via internet through their own website or through the iTune online music stores. c. ) Promotion In 2003, Apple formed a strategic alliance with PepsiCo. The Pepsi iTune Music promotion calls for people to use the winning code found under the Pepsi’s bottle caps products to redeem songs from Apple’s iTunes Music Store. This promotion has already been successful for both companies and increased the awareness of the iTune presence in the market.In 2003, Apple also announced a marketing partnerships With America Online that are aimed at driving iTunes use deeply into the mainstream. Apple and America Online have agreed to put iTunes â€Å"buy this song† buttons next to every song that’s listed in AOL’s mu sic service, which its 25 million subscribers can access. Clicking the button will automatically launch the iTunes music jukebox and begin downloading the song; billing will be handled through the customer’s existing arrangement with AOL. Apple has a joint venture with Hewlett Packard.Apple has produced an iPod for PC users and the success of this product was a good way for the company to capture non-MAC users. The company’ also drew on endorsements from music stars. U2 singer Bono, rap artist Dr. Dre and Rolling Stones singer Mick Jagger each gave a live endorsement of the iChat videoconferencing software. Singer Sarah McLachlan also appeared live to sing several songs and to talk about how she used the iPod. In 2005, Apple Computer has initiated a partnership with Wal-Mart that will soon see the iPod shuffle featured at Wal-Mart discount locations around the country. d. ) PriceApple price is know to be above average in the industry. The company is using a differentia tion strategy and focus more on innovation, and quality. This strategy is justifying their premium prices. Lately, however, their new technology and their high cash flow allowed them to lower their price and to offer more discount to certain markets such as the education market. (CI#3) This new pricing strategy may help Apple to better compete with the non-Mac user market but might cause some issue with the brand image/recognition. 2. ) Finance The financial results for the fiscal 2004 fourth quarter ended September 25, 2004.For the year 2004, the Company reported net income of $276 million on revenue of $8. 28 billion compared to net income of $69 million on revenue of $6. 21 billion in 2003. Their net income has increased 400%! Sales to the education market grew 11 percent, bringing its highest quarterly total for that market in seven years. Apple has a strong balance sheet with a lot of cash (CI#3), their inventories have almost double compared to the year 2003. Apple short-term debt and long-term debt have been completely paid, which is a very good advantage for the company.Apple’s activity ratios are very good and improved a lot compared to year 2003. However their ROE and ROI ratios are still low compared to the industry. Income Statement Sep 04 Sep 03 Sep 02 Revenue 8,279. 0 6,207. 0 5,742. 0 Cost of Goods Sold 5,870. 0 4,386. 0 4,021. 0 Gross Profit 2,409. 0 1,821. 0 1,721. 0 Gross Profit Margin 29. 1% 29. 3% 30. 0% Net Income After Taxes 276. 0 69. 0 65. 0 Balance Sheet Sep 04 Sep 03 Sep 02 Cash 2,969. 0 3,396. 0 2,252. 0 Net Receivables 774. 0 766. 0 565. 0 Inventories 101. 0 56. 0 45. 0 Total Current Assets 7,055. 0 5,887. 0 5,388. 0 Total Assets 8,050. 6,815. 0 6,298. 0 Accounts Payable 1,451. 0 1,154. 0 911. 0 Short-Term Debt 0. 0 304. 0 0. 0 Other Current Liabilities 1,229. 0 899. 0 747. 0 Total Current Liabilities 2,680. 0 2,357. 0 1,658. 0 Long-Term Debt 0. 0 0. 0 316. 0 Total Liabilities 2,974. 0 2,592. 0 2,203. 0 Total Equity 5,076. 0 4,223. 0 4,095. 0 Ratios 2004 2003 Industry Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 2. 58 2. 89 1. 33 Quick Ratio 2. 3 1. 44 1. 1 Profitability Ratios Gross Profit Margin 29. 47% 27. 52% 20. 43% Net Profit Margin 5. 20% 1. 11% 4. 53% Return on Equity (ROE) 8. 8% 1. 63% 20. 3% Return on Investment (ROI) 8. 8% 1. 1% 19. 1% Activity Ratios Inventory Turnover 56. 2 110. 84 81. 4 Asset Turnover 1. 2 0. 9108 1. 8 Leverage Ratio 1. 62 2. 47 3. ) Research and Development Apple consider that R&D are critical for the activity of the company. therefore, they are willing to increase investment in R&D to keep a sustainable competitive advantage in the industry. According to the company’s Annual Report in 2004: â€Å"In order to remain competitive, the Company believes that increased investment in research and development (R&D) is necessary in order to maintain and extend its position in the markets where it competes.The Company’s R&D spending is focused on delivering timely updates and enh ancements to its existing line of personal computers, displays, operating systems, software applications and portable music players; developing new digital lifestyle consumer and professional software applications; and investing in new product areas such as rack-mount servers, RAID storage systems, and wireless technologies. † New products are a necessity in this industry and seems to be a priority for Apple. New products are not always a success, though.This might explain why Apple seems to be so hesitant in investing its high cash flow into new projects, the company might be afraid by the potential failure of the outcome. (CI#3) 4. ) Operation and Logistics Apple heavily rely on third-parties in the manufacturing and logistics sector. Therefore, the company’s overall performance is greatly dependent on the performance of its distributors. In order to have more control over the quality of the buying experience, Apple has done continual effort to become vertically integ rated during these two passed years.Apple work only with suppliers that meet the criteria from their policy (involve commitment to environment, safety and diversity. ) At each period the company performs a detailed review on demand forecasts, inventory, product lifecycle status. 5. ) Human Resources Management (HRM) Apple has over 13,000 employees world wide. Apple believe that employee’s diversity is a key component for the company success. The company expects that all employee will respect the background or cultural differences of their peers.Apple offer great benefits to its employee such has competitive pay, and compensation, insurance coverage, bonuses, substantial product discount, stock purchase and saving/investment plan. The company offers all-level of position such as internship, part-time and entry-level for college student. 6. ) Information Systems Apple has encountered a substantial success by introducing a new digital music device called iPod that can store 1,00 0 songs and copy a CD in 10 seconds. The continual heavy investment in R&D allowed the company to be on the edge of new technology.Online store distribution channel has been very powerful for the company. V. SWOT/TOWS ANALYSIS A. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths Weaknesses 1. Ease of use 2. Established in the personal computer market3. High Corporate reputation 4. Control over the product (manufacture both the computers themselves and also the operating systems which they run)5. Leader in innovation and product differentiation6. Employee diversity 7. Strategic Alliance (HP)8. Joint venture with Pepsi9. Strong Top management10. Loyal customer base11. Creative style 1. The ease of use has led to some image issues, with some business people regarding the Macintosh as a toy. . High inventory3. Distribution problems4. high prices5. Not IBM compatible, though great strides have been made in connectivity the Macintosh is not transparently compatible. 6. Declining share in educational market7. Too m any product lines Opportunities Threats 1. Internet2. Growing industry3. Creating new software markets and selling the hardware into these markets. 4. Demand for innovation5. Employee benefit programs6. Growing educational market (In both higher education and schooling, the Macintosh ease of use and low maintenance costs are attractive. )7. Music downloads from Itune 1.Very intense competition among the industry2. Price competition3. loss of market share4. Potential litigations5. Budget deficits in education6. Technological and prices discontinuity7. Potential increase in supply’s costs B. TOWS ANALYSIS SO1. Focusing on innovation and product differentiation will contribute to the customers satisfaction (S5, O3, O4)2. The diversity of the employees and the employee benefit programs contribute to the high corporate reputation (S3, S6, O5)3. Joint venture with Pepsi and strategic alliance with HP respond to the demand for music download. S7, S8, O7) WO1. The growing educational market should increase Apple’s market share in this segment (W6, O6)2. The growing industry should allow the company to decrease prices (W4, O2) ST1. The high corporate reputation might suffer from the potential litigations. (S3, T4)2. Strong management might overcome the potential litigations. (S9, T4)3. Focus on innovation and product creative style might offset the low prices of competitors. (S11, T1, T2)4. Innovation will depend on the technological -prices conditions and changes. (S5, T6) WT1.The image issues concerning the ease of use of the machine might contribute to the loss of share. (W1, T3)2. The discontinuity in technology and prices might create some forecasting problems, which could result in excess or shortage of inventory. (W2, W3, T6)3. Competition might take advantage of Apple’s high price. (W4, T1, T2)4. Apple’s high price might lower the amount of educational contracts (W4, T5)5. Not being IBM compatible might lead to loss in market share ( W5, T3)6. The broad product line might be endangered by the technology and prices discontinuity. (W7, T6) VI.STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES AND RECOMMENDED STRATEGY A. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES 1. ) Turnaround The company could stop the expansion of their own retail segment in order to maintain a healthy relationship with its third-party distributor and avoid lawsuit. This strategy would also reduce the risks and costs tied to the stores investment. Apple could use its high cash to implement a product development strategy within the market segment they are currently serving. The company could also keep selling its products at a premium price in order to maintain the company’s reputation as an upscale and innovative brand.PROS O Improve relationship with resellers. (CI#2) O Reduce risks O The allocation of the high cash into a product development strategy might ultimately increase the revenue of the company(CI#3) O The premium price might be profitable and the upscale image brand of the company is respected. CONS O No control over the quality of the buying experience procured by the third-party distribution (CI#2) O Potential loss of market share because of the premium selling price O Broad product lines might lead to confusion and extra overhead costs. (CI#1) 2. ) Pause and Proceed with CautionIn the Annual Report for 2004, the company saw an increase in revenue and profitability. The introduction of iPod or Itune items have largely contributed to the company’s successful year. The retail segment growth has increased the brand awareness of the company but has led to some conflicts with the resellers. This strategy has to be taken with caution because Their lower price strategy is allowing the company to attract some non-Mac users. During the mid of this year (2005), the company could consider to primarily focus on: the music segment market and the education segment.Apple could also implement a succession plan for the eventual departure of Steve Jobs. The co mpany’s growth strategy has to be taken with caution and compromises with resellers have to be done. PROS O Good financial results O More control over the quality of the buying experience (CI#2) O Better brand awareness O Less confusion among core competency. (CI#1) O Sufficient cash flow to support the discounted prices. (CI#3) CONS O Cannibalization risk is still present (CI#2) O The low prices might discredit Apple’s upscale brand image. 3. ) Vertical GrowthThe company could decide to do a forward integration, by expanding its own retail store. Apple could use its high cash to finance this investment. The stores are a critical way to leverage Apple’s brand and showcase newfangled digital wares to affluent consumers. PROS O Total control over the quality of the buying experience (CI#2) O High cash can support the investment for the retail segment (CI#3) O Better brand awareness CONS O Dissatisfaction of the resellers(CI#2) O Potential loss of revenue due to ca nnibalization (CI#2) O The high cash investment is risky, and might have been allocated in a more safety way. CI#3) B. RECOMMENDED STRATEGY Pause and Proceed The last fiscal year has seen improvement for Apple. Profits have increased and the focus has been on innovation, especially in the music segment market. Using the high cash to implement a price strategy appears to be a good idea to compete with the non-Mac users. (CI#3) The brand image might slightly suffer from this strategy, therefore marketing incentive should be increased in order to sustain Apple’s reputation for high quality and innovative products. The retail segment growth should be implemented with a lot of caution.Apple needs to ease the pain of the resellers by coming up with programs to encourage these longtime partners to help it accomplish goals it can’t achieve on its own. (CI#2) Apple should also primarily focus on the music segment market and the educational segment market in which they have good opportunities. This focus would allow Apple to be more competitive and profitable. (CI#1) Least but not Last, the company should prepare a succession plan in response to the eventual departure of Steve Jobs. (CI#4) VII. IMPLEMENTATION A. WHO? The top management should narrow their focus to two market segment. B. WHAT?Apple’s core competency should focus on the music segment market and the educational segment market in which they have good opportunities. (CI#1) C. HOW? The company has to invest more into these 2 segments and cut some product lines that are not very profitable to the company. D. WHO? As Steve Jobs initiated, the company should keep focusing on a price strategy E. WHAT? By lowering the prices, the company will be able to be more competitive and increase market share. F. HOW? The company can use its high cash to support discounted prices. (CI#3) G. WHO? The top management should decide to expand the retail store. H. WHAT?Improve the quality of the buying experie nce by having control over the salesperson and collaborate with the resellers. (CI#2) I. HOW? The company can use its high cash to invest in the retail store expansion. The company should also tightly work with the resellers by supporting them through programs and bonuses. (CI#2) (CI#3) J. When? During mid 2005. K. HOW MUCH? The Company’s current strong financial condition and low debt-to-equity ratio will provide the means to accomplish these implementation initiatives in the short-term. In the long-term these measures will be well worth the cost in increased revenue and market share.L. WHO? The board of directors and the top management should prepare a succession plan. (CI#4) M. WHAT? The company has to deal with Steve Jobs eventual departure. N. HOW? Steve Jobs has to delegate some of his power to the top management and he should also implement some training programs. Tim Cook might be a good potential successor. (CI#4) P. WHEN? Right now. VIII. MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL A. The company’s strong financial position should allow the implementation of the strategies stated above. However the investment related to the retail segment growth is very costly and might be risky.Therefore, the company should: O Increase gradually the opening of retail stores. O Assess performance by having Finance and Marketing reviewing â€Å"the numbers â€Å"monthly†. O Spot and immediately address any negative trends The top management should periodically visit stores and gather feedback from line employees. They should also gather feedback from resellers to address expansion issue. B. The company’s focus on the music segment market and the education segment market has to be tightly monitored. O Top management should evaluate on a weekly basis overall performance. Revenue, Profit, ROI) O Feedback forms should also be given to customers to maintain good relations and to spot market trends early. Works Cited 10-Q for Quarterly Period Ended December 25, 200 4 http://www. apple. com/investor/ Apple Governance http://www. apple. com/investor/ Apple Financial Analysis http://www. hoovers. com/ Diverse Articles on Apple http://www. businessweek. com Leave a Reply You must be logged in to post a comment. VISION STATEMENT â€Å"Man is the creator of change in this world. As such he should be above systems and structures, and not subordinate to them. † Explanation of visionApple lives this vision through the technologies it develops for consumers and corporations. It strives to make its customers masters of the products they have bought. Apple doesn't simply make a statement. It lives it by ensuring that its employees understand the vision and strive to reach it. It has put systems in place to enable smooth customer interaction. It has put objectives in place to continuously move forward; implemented strategies to fulfil these objectives; and ensured that the right marketing, financial and operational structures are in place to apply t he strategies. MISSION STATEMENT Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and internet offerings. † Page 15 of 54 [pic][pic][pic] The PC Industry We can glean Insight into the history and composition of the PC Industry from its eponymous title. In the late 1970s, as Wozniak and Jobs were starting Apple computer, personal computers were an emerging product. The following chart (Reimer) gives an overall view of the major market players since the mid-1970s. PC Share of Market 0% 10% 20% 0% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Year 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 ShareofMark et IBM SOM Apple II SOM Mac SOM Amiga SOM C64 SOM TRS 80 SOM By 1983, the market share of the Apple II fell to 8% while the PC had 26%. Market share of Macintosh peaked at slightly more than 10% in the early 1990s and has since tapered to between 2-3%. The IBM PC and its clones became the standard due to the success of the open nature of the PC. This allows product developers to offer vastly more products for the platform. Some argue that not licensing the Mac OS was a mistake.Bill Gates and Microsoft were encouraging Apple to license their OS in the early 1980s, because they were developing software for Apple and had much riding on the success of the company. When Apple did not license, Microsoft began developing their operating system, Windows. (Linzmayer, 169-75, 245-9) Page 16 of 54 [pic][pic][pic] The Online Music Industry While Apple clearly dominates the online music industry, the battle for domination is not over. Although digital music sales are growing rapidly, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) states that digital sales account for only 4% of all music sales. Borland) Analysts at Forrester (Bartiromo) and Gartner (Bruno) validate this. Apple’s sales are between 66% and 75% of d ownloads and 80% of music players. (Bruno) Apple is part to a suit alleging monopolistic practices concerning their market share dominance of players and downloads. (Grundner) The other players in the download market are (the revised) Napster, Yahoo Music, Rhapsody, and illegitimate file-sharing services. Portable music players competing with the iPod include those made by Creative, Samsung, iRiver, and Sony.A major point of contention between these services and player manufacturers is the control of a variety of incompatible Digital Rights Management (DRM) schemes. The Future of Apple Personal Computers – A Shift in Strategy Apple has historically taken a far different path than the traditional Windows and Intel combination. Microsoft provides the Windows operating system to separate downstream hardware producers such as Dell. Apple vertically integrated both the operating system software and hardware completely under Apple.A consumer running Microsoft Windows can choose fro m a myriad of systems based on the Intel processor, while a consumer running Apple’s OS X must purchase Apple hardware. Page 17 of 54 [pic][pic][pic][pic] Apple is adjusting this strategy by migrating their microprocessors from IBM and Motorola PowerPC to Intel. Analysts believe that the Intel-based Macintosh may be able to run Microsoft Windows applications by the end of 2006. (Burrows) In addition to switching processors, Apple positioned their computers as an immediate option for the traditional Microsoft Windows user.With Apple Boot Camp, users may now use Mac OS X or Windows on an Apple computer. (Sutherland) Figure 1: Apple Boot Camp – Allowing Mac OS X or Windows By allowing users to run Windows on an Intel Mac, Apple reduced the switching costs for traditional PC users. Apple may steal away customers that are willing to pay a premium for a system that runs both Windows and Mac OS X. Figure 2: IBM PowerPC Processor, Intel Processor Core Duo / Pentium M Page 18 o f 54 [pic]Apple continues to retain a strategic option to license its technology to clone makers such as Dell.Past attempts at licensing Apple technology (to IBM, Gateway, and others) failed on accord of Apple’s rigid demands. Many technology leaders (such as a 1985 letter by Bill Gates to Apple CEO John Sculley) criticized Apple for keeping a closed architecture. Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak criticizes this strategy, â€Å"We had the most beautiful operating system, but to get it you had to buy our hardware at twice the price. That was a mistake. † (Linzmayer, 245-57) Whether Apple would be willing to pursue this reversal of vertical integration is unclear.Although such a move would cannibalize a portion of Apple’s own hardware sales, it would also provide royalty-based revenue that could approach $1 billion annually. (Burrows) Jobs traditionally sided against licensing Apple technology. He referred to Mac clone producers as â€Å"leeches† and he person ally killed Power Computing (a Mac clone producer) by terminating their license in 1997. (Linzmayer, 255) Apple in the Living Room Apple’s iPod and iTunes are a powerful combination that fosters a network style of increasing returns. (Barney, 124) By selling iPods, Apple increases the consumer demand for music from iTunes.By placing more musical choices on iTunes (including less popular songs that appeal to niche audiences), there is more demand for iPods. Apple had 70% of the legal music download market in early 2005. (Yoffie) Apple is shooting for the digital living room of the future. For example, Apple just released a â€Å"boom box† portable version of the iPod. This iPod (the iPod Hi-Fi) comes with a remote control. Instead of forming a strategic alliance, Apple engineered the iPod Hi-Fi and designed it with high-fidelity features. (Burrows) Apple is clearly trying to develop a stronger core competency in the entertainment area.Page 19 of 54 [pic][pic] Figure 3: The Apple Hi-Fi Apple may also release an Apple-branded cell phone and iPod combination device by the end of 2006. (Burrows) This product would again position Apple as a â€Å"second mover† responding to Palm’s Treo and Verizon’s VCAST technology. Strategic Alliances and Entertainment Jobs had the early strategic vision to complement computing with movie entertainment. After founding NeXT, he personally acquired a majority interest in the young movie company Pixar in February 1986. (Linzmayer, 219) Jobs went on to invest ? of his personal wealth into Pixar.In 1995, Pixar solidified its position within animated movies with the debut of Toy Story. Grossing $358 million worldwide, it became the 3rd-largest grossing animated movie in history. (Linzmayer, 222) After this success, Jobs took Pixar public and negotiated far better terms with Disney. Later successes included Toy Story 2, Monsters Inc. , and Finding Nemo. Ironically, Jobs stated in the November 23, 1998Bu siness Week, â€Å"I Think Pixar has the opportunity to be the next Disney – not replace Disney – but be the next Disney. † (Linzmayer, 222-4) The alliance between Pixar and Disney has remendous potential for economies of scope. As CEO of Apple and Disney’s largest shareholder, Jobs is the strategic link between Disney, Page 20 of 54 [pic][pic] Apple, and Pixar. Opportunities include combining the animated movie expertise of Disney and Pixar, as well as sharing the content of Disney’s ABC or ESPN networks over Apple’s digital offerings. (Burrows, Grover, and Green) A current example of the fusion between Disney, Jobs, Apple, and technology is video on the iPod. Disney’s Desperate Housewives was one of the first television programs available for purchase and download to the newer video-enabled iPod.There are concerns about whether these synergies will come to fruition. There are fears that the personality and style of Jobs may conflict with Disney, and that Disney CEO Iger could be â€Å"Amelioed† — driven out of office by Jobs in a manner similar to how Jobs drove Amelio out of the CEO post at Apple. (Burrows, Grover, and Green) EXTERNAL ANALYSIS Technological Environment Brand Awareness – Style at a Premium Apple’s products are trendy and stylish. After Jobs returned in 1997, Apple retained designer Jonathan Ive to differentiate their computers from the typical beige box.Ive’s design of the iMac included clear colorful cases that distinguished Apple computers. (Linzmayer, 295-6) Apple’s iPod (with the trademark white ear buds and simple track wheel) commands a 15%-20% premium over other MP3 players. (Yoffie) Apple and Pixar limit the number of computer products and movies that they sell. Product differentiation with focused quality and style also extend to the Jobs Pixar – â€Å"Pixar's executives focus on making sure there are no ‘B teams,’ that ev ery movie gets the best efforts of Pixar's brainy staff of animators, storytellers, and technologists. † (Burrows, Grover, and Green) Page 21 of 54 pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] Figure 4: The Stylish Design of the iMac and Mac Mini Apple positions its Macintosh computers as higher quality and higher price. HP, Dell, and other PC manufacturers are pricing many systems under the $1,000 threshold. â€Å"Apple is struggling to meet demand for its new MacBook Pro laptop despite a $1,900 price tag that is nearly twice that of garden-variety rivals. † (Burrows) Apple has only recently entered the low-end (below $500) consumer market with the Mac Mini. Although the Mac Mini is a base model with few features, it comes encased in a very small and distinctive package.Apple portrays this computer as â€Å"Small is Beautiful†. (Apple) Likewise, the iPod Shuffle was Apple’s first entry into the lower-end ($100 range) of flash- memory-based portable music players. Interoperab ility Although Apple competes directly with Microsoft for operating systems, the release of iTunes for Windows in 2002 was a key strategic move. This decision expanded the potential customer base to nearly all personal computer owners, even though Apple only has 2%-3% of all personal computer sales. (Yoffie) Conversely, Apple depends on Microsoft for a version of Microsoft Office.As the most widely used office suite of applications, Macintosh users rely on Office to correspond with companies that standardized on Windows. This is from a strategic alliance between Apple and Microsoft after Jobs returned in 1997. (Linzmayer, 290) Page 22 of 54 [pic][pic][pic] Apple’s iTunes service has a technological hook (asset specificity) to Apple’s iPod. Although versions of iTunes exist for both Apple and Microsoft operating systems, the iTune’s AAC file format prevents other portable music players (such as iRiver or Samsung) from playing purchased songs. (Yoffie) Technology and the Digital LifestyleApple not only dominates the music player market, its iLife suite provides consumers with easy-to-use software for music and video composition. With â€Å"podcast† a household word, Apple’s Garage Band application makes the recording of podcasts and music very easy. (Boddie) Figure 5: The GarageBand Music and Podcast Application Page 23 of 54 [pic][pic] Regulatory Environment While introducing new technologies, there is a persistent threat of legal action by competitors. For example, Apple sued Microsoft in 1988 (settled in 1997 for an undisclosed amount) for perceived similarities between Microsoft Windows and Macintosh audiovisual works. Linzmayer, 172-4) Microsoft has generally been the focus for government antitrust charges (such as U. S. v. Microsoft) (US DOJ, 2006). Both federal and state governments assert that Microsoft’s dominance blocked fair competition within the software industry. This is an advantage for Apple, because its operating systems are a viable substitute for Windows. Furthermore, Microsoft’s continued support for Office for Macintosh reduces the perceived level of market monopoly and abuse. (Linzmayer, 290-1) Manufacturers will continue to trespass on Apple’s intellectual property.For example, the company tex9 released an open source music program called xtunes that was very similar to iTunes. In 2002, Apple took legal action against tex9, who then altered the program and renamed it sumi (pronounced, â€Å"sue me†). (Linzmayer, 300) Legal threats can surface from somewhat unusual sources. Apple Corps Ltd. is the London-based company that owns the rights to the music of the Beatles. Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr recently sued Apple over the use of the Apple logo in iTunes, claiming that it violated Apple’s agreement not to produce music under an apple-based logo. Associated Press) Research and development is a key component to Apple’s sustained competitive advantage. Apple is currently taking legal action against several popular technical web sites for releasing proprietary product research. Sites such as appleinsider. com have allegedly posted verbatim content from documents protected by employee non-disclosure agreements. Page 24 of 54 [pic][pic][pic] (McCullagh) Release of critical insider information could give Apple’s competitors a jump in producing rival products. Industry Analysis Using Porter’s Five Forces ModelApple operates in two primary industries: †¢ Computing – Hardware and Software †¢ Delivery of Entertainment and Media Apple has always been under intense competition within the computer, software, and entertainment industries. â€Å"Looking to 2005†¦ Every time that Apple had jumped into the lead in a product category during the past two decades, it had had difficulty in sustaining its leadership position. † (Yoffie) We use Porter’s Five Forces Model to understand why Ap ple’s industries are so competitive. Figure 6: Porter’s Five Forces Model Page 25 of 54 Threat of New Entrants Bargaining ower of Suppliers Threat of Substitutes Bargaining power of Buyers Level of Threat in an Industry [pic][pic] Figure 7: Summary of Industry Threats (Computer Equipment and Entertainment Distribution) Type and Severity of Threat Organization Examples Entry – High Threat Verizon Streaming audio and video with V CAST. Amazon On demand online services to purchase music (similar to iTunes). Google They make everything. The â€Å"Next Google† New entrants with disruptive technology. Rivalry – High Threat Microsoft Windows Operating System, Windows Media Player for playing music and video.Linux Competition to Mac OS X Operating System. Napster, Rhapsody Online music sources – alternatives to iTunes Music Store. Dell, HP, Lenovo Alternate sources for computer hardware. iRiver, Samsung, Creative Small, stylish MP3 Players. DreamWor ks Animated movies. YouTube. com Online video. Substitutes – Moderate Threat XM, Sirius Satellite Radio for music. XBox, PS2 Entertainment Media, Media and Music. Various Internet Streaming Radio and Podcasts. Music CDs, DVD- Audio and SuperAudio CD Alternative means to acquire music. Broadcast, Cable, Satellite, NetFlix, TiVo, TheatresAlternative sources for video. Suppliers – High Threat Motorola, IBM, Intel, Samsung Suppliers of Processors and computer memory. Microsoft Strategic Alliance / Supplier of Office for Mac. The Big Five – BMG, EMI, Sony, Universal, and Warner Sources of music. Will they raise prices and break the dollar per song model? Some in the record industry resent Apple’s distribution model. â€Å"Apple reaps billions from selling its hit music player, but there are sparse profits from the songs being sold over the Net. † (Burrows, Grover, and Green) Disney, ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox, Pixar, SonySuppliers of Television and Movies. Will they sign exclusive contracts with other online services? Note that this threat is reduced for Disney / Pixar. Buyers – Moderate Threat Consumers and Illegal peer-to-peer file sharing Consumers share music using peer-to-peer networks without paying for music. Distributors Apple retailers may pressure for lower prices or better terms. For example, the release of the Apple Store in 2001 â€Å"infuriated longtime independent Apple retailers that didn’t appreciate Cupertino cannibalizing their sales. † (Linzmayer, 300) Consumer Attitudes and BehaviorsConsumers or businesses may reduce spending on personal computers or non-essential (potentially high elasticity of demand) music players if they fear economic downturns. Consumer Refresh Consumers and businesses may continue to use previous-model iPods and Page 26 of 54 [pic][pic] Cycles Macs rather than upgrade to current iPods, iMacs, or OS Page 27 of 54 [pic]The total industry threat for the industry space that Appl e occupies (computer equipment and distribution of entertainment) is a high threat industry. Apple must continue to pursue product differentiation (i. e. he style and ease-of-use of an iPod) and economies of scope (i. e. offering ABC television shows on iTunes) to maintain their sustained competitive advantage in this industry. Which External Threats are Most Significant †¢ Computer Hardware and Software: Open Source software such as the Linux Operating System and Open Office applications threaten both Apple and Microsoft. The low (often, free) cost of the software may allow it to overtake Apple and Microsoft, especially in developing markets such as China. †¢ Music Products: Major online retailers such as Amazon are considering entry into the online music market.With a wide internet presence and a household name, Amazon could present a formidable challenge to Apple. If the major record labels (Universal, Sony BMG, EMI, and Warner) negotiate better terms with new competito rs to iTunes, Apple may be unable to provide some of the music content that they currently offer. The major music labels dislike Apple’s dollar per song pricing. They would prefer to earn higher profits with â€Å"variable pricing†. (Wingfield) With variable pricing, the most popular songs would be greater than $1, and less popular songs would be less than $1.Although the labels recently renewed their contracts with Apple, there may be provisions that allow future changes in the pricing model. (Wingfield and Smith) †¢ Suppliers: The recent shift to Intel processors could present a significant threat to Apple. With only two companies (Intel and AMD) producing Intel-compatible processors, there is a strong potential for tacit collusion and oligopoly power between these suppliers. Apple purchasing must now directly compete with HP, Lenovo, and Dell. If shortages or Page 28 of 54 [pic][pic] exclusive agreements materialize, Apple could face problems with obtaining raw materials.Apple should consider additional sources such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). Figure 8: CPU Market Share Additional External Threats Security Apple software, like all large software products, has security vulnerabilities that hackers may exploit. A significant exploitation in the future could damage many businesses and households using Apple computers. This would affect future customer purchasing decisions. Apple enjoys a competitive advantage, because their OS X is mature and stable due to its basis on BSD Unix. In fact, â€Å"computer security folks back at FBI HQ use Macs running OS X†. (Granneman) Page 29 of 54 pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]Ads by Google |Free Whitepaper | |Gain competitive advantage | |using predictive analytics | |www. sas. com/uk/retail | |SPSS Predictive Analytics |Learn To Use Predictive Analytics | |In This Free SPSS Whi te Paper. | |www. cognos. com/SPSS_analytics | |SWOT Analysis Diagrams | |Easy SWOT Diagram Software | |See Examples. Free Download! | |www. SmartDraw. com | pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]A Strategic Analysis of Apple Corporation DownloadPrintMobileCollectionsReport Document Report this document? Please tell us reason(s) for reporting this document Top of Form [pic] [pic] [pic]Spam or junk [pic]Porn adult content [pic]Hateful or offensive If you are the copyright owner of this document and want to report it, please follow these directions to submit a copyright infringement notice. 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[pic] Info and Rating Reads: 46,219 [pic] Uploaded: 02/09/2009 Category: School Work Rated: pic][pic][pic][pic][pic](28 Ratings) course information [email  protected] com inc analyse strategy summary macintosh computers organisational objective (more tags) course information [email  protected] com inc analyse strategy summary macintosh computers org anisational objective avac strategic control business activities term strategy industries case profitibility economic relative ideas (fewer) Follow mahantesh123 [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic]Sections show allcollapse « prev | next  » †¢ EXECUTIVE SUMMARY †¢ HISTORY OF APPLE †¢ The PC Industry †¢ The Online Music Industry The Future of Apple †¢ Apple in the Living Room †¢ EXTERNAL ANALYSIS †¢ Technological Environment †¢ Interoperability †¢ Technology and the Digital Lifestyle †¢ Regulatory Environment †¢ Industry Analysis Using Porter’s Five Forces Model †¢ SWOT Analysis †¢ Threats †¢ Financial Analysis †¢ Stock Price Performance †¢ Profitability Measures †¢ Product Unit Sales †¢ 2002 Product Sales †¢ 2005 Product Sales †¢ Strategy †¢ Product Differentiation †¢ Strategic Alliances [pic]Share & Embed Related Documents PreviousNext 1. 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[pic]Recent Readcasters Add a Comment Top of Form [pic] [pic] Submit Characters: 400 [pic] [pic] Bottom of Form 0137984613 left a comment iryani_70 03 / 13 / 2010 Reply natasha100 left a comment aw esum report-thanx !!!!!!!! -but just tel me how 2 download it? 03 / 02 / 2010 Reply queenouchka left a comment great report, please how to download? 02 / 24 / 2010 Reply BrianCMasi left a comment is reading Thanks for this.Your work helped guide me in completing my analysis of the company. 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