Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Luke Gospel Table Of Contents Introduction 2 Body Of Presentation 3 Author 3 Date 3 Intended Audience 4 Purpose 5 Outline Of Contents 6 Theme Verse 7 Relevance 8 Bibliography 10 Introduction Luke was not a Jew, but a gentile. He was a physician who loved people. The nature of Luke's Gospel is indicated by the role of those from whom he got his materials. They were "ministers of the word" (7,Laymans). The book was written for a man named Theophilus, who was part of the Roman Government. Luke's words touched Theophilus, drawing him closer to Jesus and who he was. The depths of Luke's Gospel are to be plumbed by the response of faith (7,Laymans). This Gospel was written with a point of view in mind, symbolized by the calf, which to Luke meant that Jesus was sacrificed for he world to be save from heir sins. Luke emphasized that Jesus not only wanted the Jews to know the word, but also the gentiles, because he wants everyone to know about salvation and his love for us. Luke was loved by everyone and was thought to be a skilled painter. Luke also wrote the Book of Acts, which is said to be the sequel to the Gospel. Buttrick et al. (1952) says the book of Luke explains what Jesus dealt with, "all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day when he was taken up to heaven." Luke's Gospel is one of the easiest and clearest to read. It is written in the literary form of secular Greek historians, and has a quality of language that reveals author to have been a man of learning. Luke was setting out to preach the Christian message in a form that would capture the attention of the intelligent gentile mind of the first century. Body Of Presentation Authorship The Gospel according to Luke carries no direct statement about who wrote it. However, there are many indications that it was written by the one whose name bears: Luke, the doctor companion of Paul (14, Layman's). Luke accompanied Paul on his journey to spread the word after the ascension of Jesus. According to Buttrick et al. (1962) Luke writes Iraneous. According to the Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible (1962) it is confirmed that Luke was the author of the "we sections", because they are written in first person plural. These sections show that Paul is being accompanied by someone who could possible be Luke. This in itself shows that the same person wrote the Book of Acts, because of the writings and the style in which it was written. Luke was a gentile, for Paul lists him among his gentile friends. We know that Luke was a doctor for Paul calls him the "the beloved physician"(15, Layman's). Several arguments arise about authorship, although it falls short of proof, it is clear that there is nothing in the work that a physician could not have written. Luke fulfills the requirements for being the author of the Gospel. Date The date of the Gospel is not quite clear, but the Interpreters Dictionary (1962) states that it could be somewhere around 80 A.D. The reason behind this date is believed that the book of Acts was written shortly after Paul's imprisonment. There are four factors all scholars take into account when considering the date for Luke's gospel: The date of Mark and Luke's relationship, Date of Acts, Reference to the destruction of Jerusalem in Chapter 21 and The Theological and Ecclesiastical tone of Luke- Acts (Liefeld, 1984). The four factors lead all historians to same period of time, which ranges from A.D. 70 to 80. Fortunately the worth of the Gospel for us in no way rests on this point. Intended Audience Luke intended the Gospel to be the first part of a larger book, for the Book of Acts is clearly a sequel to it. In Acts chapter one verse one he explains that "In the first book " he has dealt with "all that Jesus began to do and teach until the day he was taken up"(Buttrick1962). Readership of the Gospel must be drawn primarily from the prologue (Luke 1:1-4) and secondarily from the conclusions about the purpose of the Gospel. From a brief survey of theories about Luke's purpose, it would appear that while Luke-Acts had an appeal to the Non-Christian, Luke expected and desired it to be read by Christians, specifically new converts. According to the Expositors Bible there are several characteristics of the Gospel such as
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction This research work has tackled the meaning of color and light and how we are able to distinguish objects appearance by the virtue of light falling on those objects. It distinguishes why some object appear different from others. Some of basic colors have been tackled and how different cells on our eyes are able to differentiate colors.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Color in Art and Design specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Light has been tackled as a very useful component of color. Some fundamental cells in our eyes which facilitate vision have been covered and how they behave in presence and absence of light. In art and design this paper depicts the great role of color and how colors can be used tactically to improve the work of artists. Color The word color itself has got a wide scope in regard to the perspective one would like to look at it. according to Bohren Clothiaux (2006, pp. 212-21 3), color can be referred to as wavelength or frequency which can be as a result of stimulation from external factors like light or produced internally by our brains. They add that Color and light are inseparable but still we can experience the presence of color without light such an instance may arise in a dream despite no light has been depicted someone experiences the presence of light, If under influence of psychotropic drugs or when hit on the head colors may be seen despite no light on our retina. Spectrum of Light A visible spectrum is a portion electromagnetic wave which can be detected by human eyes (Smith, 2006, pg, 3) Light According to Hambling (2002, pg, 1), for us to experience light it must be visible this means that the electromagnetic waves comprising in the light must be above four hundred nanometers (400nm), otherwise if electromagnetic waves are below 400nm they are invisible. The invisible light can be absorbed on some surfaces and be re-emitted hence allowing s omeone to see it for example fluorescence has got this property. When visible light reaches the retina of the eye and this effect is interpreted we can say that color has been perceived. There are two types of cells usually responsible for the vision .Those cells bring about the distinction of color of human eyes when light falls on the retina.Advertising Looking for research paper on art? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Color in the brain After the retina has done the interpretation of the color through its cells that is cone cell and rod cells the other processing is done separately, this is done out of the eyes to the brain where perception is usually carried out. Cone cells Those are the cells in the retina which facilitate color vision and works best in bright light; they perceive finer details and images which change rapidly. Usually when we are reading or watching TV they are of great importance. Rod cells Other than co ne cells they can work in less light and facilitate for peripheral vision, they are located in big numbers at the retina and they entirely responsible for vision with less light usually at night. They are less accurate compared to cone cells. Color Theory We usually observe colors and also we visualize the colors this means that we have physiology of vision which is closely and intricately linked with psychological perception. When we mix colors we yield other colors but some colors cannot be created by any mixture those colors are referred to as Pure colors which includes Red, Blue and Yellow. Types of colors Colors are usually grouped according to various classes and how they come into being. Those colors which usually after being mixed give rise to other colors are called primary colors. Also we have secondary and Tertiary colors discussed below. Primary colors Usually primary colors are the most important color because they are usually combined to yield other colors. But when it comes to light we cannot regard them as the most important component of light because according to Smith (2006, pg 3), he states that Ã¢â¬Å"light is both a wave and a particleÃ¢â¬ as a wave they are electromagnetic wave usually characterized by a great speed and as a particle they are unbroken flow of those particles. All colors can be yielded by mixing Red Green Blue White and Black these set of colors has been referred to as psychological primary colors.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Color in Art and Design specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Secondary colors When we mix additive primary colors together we get secondary colors for example when red is mixed by yellow we get orange. Tertiary colors Tertiary colors are yielded after we have combined additive secondary colors When we talk about additive we simply mean that we are mixing Paints or Inks. Properties of light When light fall on the objec t there are some effects which takes place this light might be reflected, absorbed or even be scattered or some or the combination of these effects may be observed Some objects may absorb light and in the process they emit the light with varying properties from the source this is usually known as fluorescence. Objects are also said to emit their light rather than reflecting this usually happens when their temperature increases. Object color is determined by its scattering or absorption properties for instance when object absorbs all the light it appear black and when it reflects all the light it appear white. If light of different wavelength falls on opaque object which reflects light they appear as tinted mirrors and those colors which appear are usually determined by the differences which are there on the wave length. Light is usually transmitted by transparent or translucent objects, but if on both cases they absorb or reflect the light they also appear tinted which is as a resul t of their difference in wave length. Color Symbolism According to (Bear, 2011), in every religion, culture and traditions color has been used to symbolize many things some colors are used to cause reactions either physical or feeling, ideas or concepts. Some color is depicted in clothing and painting to symbolize something or deliver a message or even to show the sense of belonging. Physical reaction If something is red in color it may cause physical reaction like raising blood pressure (Bear, 2011). Consequently color which has been used to bring about culture reactions is white in time of marriages and also in some cultures when mourning. Color in Art Design In art color is very fundamental in the sense that the viewer may be is evoked to respond, change mood or to create a message. In Art the attributes of color can be used to the advantage of artist. It does not necessarily mean that a message can only be passed through writing but a mere depiction of a color which can easily and conveniently send a message to the viewer (Mcnee, 2010).Advertising Looking for research paper on art? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Color names, Paint store and Fashion In fashion we cannot disregard the fact that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not possible to have a fascinating fashion without colors. Good selection of colors will always attract customer to a particular fashion may be of clothes according to how colors has been depicted to those fashions. Individuals also may be selective in selection of the colors as a result of personal preferences. When a certain fashion has got a particular color and this color is one of the most favorite colors to many of the customers it will definitely be an aid to get customer into purchasing of that item. In paint stores the naming of those paints is usually depicted evidently to attract many customers. This fascinating site keeps the customer flowing into the stores. In essence appropriate naming usually enhance perception the customers has towards any particular color Summary ItÃ¢â¬â¢s evident that without color we could not have the actual touch of reality because the issue of how t o differentiate objects would be very hard. Colors as we have seen are brought about by light but this fact has been compromised by the fact that still without light we can still experience colors for example when we are dreaming. The issue of color has a wide scope and at least the basic knowledge of the color should be embraced by everybody. In our day to day interaction with environment we are supposed to know the meaning of colors for instance when crossing the road there is universal color set aside universally to communicate to the road users when it is safe to cross the road, hence the importance of having knowledge in colors. Reference List Bear, J. H. (2011). Color Meaning, Symbolism of Color and Colors that go together. US: About.com, the New York Times Company. Bohren, C. F Clothiaux, E.E. (2006). Fundamental of Atmospheric Radiation: AnÃ Introduction with 400 Problems. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Publishers. Hambling, D. (2002). Let the Light Shine in. UK: Guardian News and M edia Limited. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/science/2002/may/30/medicalscience.research Mcnee, L. (2010). Use the Hidden Meaning of the Color Red in Art Design. US: Genesis Framework. Smith, G. H. (2006). Camera Lenses: From box camera To Digital. Washington: The International Society For optical Engineering. This research paper on Color in Art and Design was written and submitted by user Myra Yates to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
How to Overcome Stage Fright Imagine standing at the tribune, a couple of seconds before you actually start delivering your graduation speech. Think of the moment when you stand behind the mic, just before the first line of the song you want to perform for the crowd. How does it feel? Are you full of happy excitement or feel like running away (if only you could do it on those shaky legs)? In case it makes you feel any better Ã¢â¬â John Lennon used to throw up before his live performances. Youre not alone in the struggle. Its Not About You One of the most common reasons of a stage anxiety is worrying what the audience is going to think about you. Well, heres a fun fact: They dont really care about your personality. Most of the time people are worried only about themselves. You are to engage, educate or entertain your audience. If they are satisfied with what they get, they wont judge the one who delivers it too hard. Thus, concentrate on the material youre going to present instead of focusing on your personality. Practice Practice makes perfect. The rule applies to almost every sphere of our lives, right? Public speaking is not an exception. Training helps your brain to reduce the number of unknown variables it has to deal with when the due date comes. This allows you to focus on your story, entertaining your reader and making the whole thing much more fun. If memorizing a speech is a challenge for you, take a look at our infographics on how to memorize a speech. Send Good Vibes Perception is everything, isnt it? Thats why thinking of your audience as of a group of friendly, interested people, rather than a bunch of guys, ready to destroy you with criticism, will be of a great help. Smile and remember about eye contact. Avoid gazing at people, though: diverting your eyes to look at your notes or fix the appliances makes you look human, which is certainly good. We like the things we can relate to. Thus, looking not-so-perfect at times might even be a good thing. Power Posing Body language can shape our behavior, the way we make decisions and feel about ourselves. Power posing is a great tool to achieve these results. The study shows, that standing in a high-power pose for about 2 minutes may seriously boost your confidence and reduce stress. What are these poses? Think of a Wonder Woman or a Superman signature positions. Fake it till you make it. Or, actually, fake it until you become it. Dont Cram Sounding human and looking natural is crucial for successful delivery and impressing your listeners. Thats why you dont want to learn every single word by heart, when it comes to delivering a speech. You surely are to know what goes after what and have some cards or the outline in front of your eyes. Memorizing every single word will make you sound robotic. If you are having difficulties with writing a speech, consider our speech-writing help. If you are going to sing, act or dance in public Ã¢â¬â situation is a bit different. Here youll seek for a certain degree of mechanization, where you know all the moves, cues or direction of the melody. Nevertheless, leaving some space for your soul and inspiration will help you and your audience enjoy the event much more. Breathe Breathing in certain patterns may be a very powerful relaxation technique. First, it has a positive impact onto your physical state: blood pressure stabilize your brain gets that desired portion of oxygen the muscles relax All in all, you feel far more calm and confident. Second, you simply focus your attention on an activity, not on your being anxious and stressed out. Profit! No Caffeine Lots of people simply cant function without their favorite brew. In fact, its kind of a ritual, that has to be comforting and energizing. That is certainly true. Another fact here is that caffeine is a strong stimulant: it accelerates your heart rates dehydrates the vocal chord and can even make you sweat more intensively Add the general nervousness and get a cocktail of being overly jumpy, sweaty and squeaky. Try saving your cuppa as a reward for success. In case that just doesnt work for you Ã¢â¬â stick to your regular amount, and dont add any extra portions of caffeine before the actual event. Stretch Out Do a couple of yoga poses. Choose the level of difficulty that suits you best and focus on maintaining that balance, breathing and keeping muscles nice and tight. If youre a fan of yoga already Ã¢â¬â you know how awesome it is. In case youre not quite into that Ã¢â¬â give it a shot! You dont have to make yoga your daily routine, but it may work just fine for stressful situations, just like your public performance. Now, take a breath. Your presentation, speech, play or concert will go great. Especially, with our tips. Shine bright! Youll nail it.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Health Care Management and Obama health care reform - Essay Example Health insurance and public health have been in the front line in this kind of debates as well as to what extent should the state offer assistance. Provision of healthcare is a task that encompasses provision of various healthcare services, relevant equipments to hospitals, pharmaceutical products, life sciences funding and funding in biotechnology (Reid 2009). The activities that relate to healthcare and the centers where this is carried out include hospitals, nursing and elderly homes, those involved in provision of healthcare plans, provision of laboratory services, drug manufacturing and delivery, diagnostic substances and biotechnology itself. Therefore, this is a line that requires care to handle in the case of governments as it is a resource intensive sector. This also shows how the introduction as well as implementation of reforms can be quite a task as the stakeholders involved are many resulting to many and divergent views (McGreal 2010). This is what characterized the heal thcare reforms bill that Obama administration brought forth. The above is not a case whose debate came with the Obama administration but rather has been with the American administrations for years now (The Economist 2008). It is on record that the issue and debates on healthcare management and reform begun well at the onset of the twentieth century and to date is an issue still attractive much public debate. It is therefore important before analyzing the current Obama administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s reforms to look into the past in order to see why this issue has not faded away for all these years. The first recorded debate on healthcare and social welfare intervention by the US dates back in the 1854 where there was a proposed bill that aimed at cautioning the physically challenged and offering them asylums. The bill was quite popular in those dayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards and had even passed in congress until the president vetoed it. It was rejected by President Pierce on the grounds that it was not
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The use of time travel, style, and setting in SlaughterhouseFive help characterize its main character Billy Pilgrim - Essay Example Vonnegut uses time travel throughout the novel and this allowed him to relate seemingly unrelated events. In Slaughterhouse Five: Reforming the Novel and the World Jerome Klinkowitz says the time traveling narrative style of Slaughterhouse Five revolutionized the novel and had a profound impact on literary style around the world (76). But first, in order to fully explore how and perhaps why Vonnegut used time travel to tell the story of Billy Pilgrim, it is important to first understand a bit about Vonnegut himself. Kurt Vonnegut Jr. was born 11/11/1922 into a prominent midwestern family. The family saw significant financial hardships during the Depression that led Vonnegut's father to discourage him from a career "in the arts". He majored in chemistry and biochemistry at Cornell University but lost his draft deferment in 1943 at the height of WW II so he enlisted in army. His mother committed suicide on Mother's Day in 1944 right before the young Vonnegut was shipped to Europe (Klinkowitz iix). On 12/19/1944 he was captured and put to work in a factory in Dresden where he lived with fellow prisoners of war in an underground meat locker. It was this unlikely shelter that proved to be salvation for Vonnegut during the controversial firebombing of Dresden on February 13th 1945. German casualties were estimated at 135,000 to 250,000 and Vonnegut and his fellow prisoners inherited the grisly job of helping the German army clean up the dead (Klinkowitz 93).After the war he resumed his education at t he University of Chicago, where he studied anthropology, Vonnegut spent the next twenty-five years writing with varying degrees of success but the desire to write a novel about the nightmares of Dresden never left him. He struggled to tell this horrific story and even remarks in the book that "there is nothing intelligent to say about a massacre" (Allen 77). In 1969, during the height of the Vietnam War, Slaughterhouse Five was published and embraced by the war weary American public. Vonnegut's tale of life, death, war and the tragic human experience became a best seller and is considered a modern literary classic. Kurt Vonnegut's black comedic style makes Slaughterhouse Five a sardonic epic about the human experience. The unique use of time travel allows for a depth of character development in Billy Pilgrim that a chronological tale simply would not accommodate. Vonnegut also uses time to incorporate himself into the story using the first and last chapters of the book as his monologue. This allowed him to personally comment on issues ranging from alcohol, getting old, life, death, war and even Bobby Kennedy. It seems he used Slaughterhouse Five as a way to explore his own humanity and in various ways he lets his audience know that he and Pilgrim are one in the same. For instance, he talks about the character Lazzaro as someone he knew in Dresden. The knapsack, the plaster Eiffel Tower, the wagon full of clocks, the birds, all snips of images to come later in the book. In the first chapter of Slaughterhouse Five Vonnegut discusses the difficulty he had writing the book and eludes to the demons he has faced since his Dresden experience. He talks about getting too drunk and calling old friends late at night and it seems neither his friends nor his wife really understands. The reader gets the feeling right at the outset that Vonnegut, like Pilgrim feels out of place in the world, like a "foreigner" or
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Miller said the Crucible Essay Miller emphasizes this by using short sentences with many pauses. The silence creates pathos for the characters from the audience. There is also a lot of questioning which reflects conflict and how the characters are helpless like a small child. This emotional togetherness of the Proctors contrasts greatly with their conflict with each other on pages 41-45: A sense of their separation arises p42. When the Proctors were together being able to live physically and sexually together they were separate but now they are about to be ripped apart they are emotionally together. Elizabeth speaks the last words of the play about John. This shows how their conflict has finally been resolved. This contrasts with the dramatic devices used in the next part of the scene after they begin to speak about Johns confession and when Hathorne comes in. This next part uses pauses and questioning as well to convey an interrogative atmosphere. It is no longer a personal scene- this part shows the community side to the play. There is a sharp conflict between the individual and the community in this scene but it is concentrated more on in the rest of the play. Another main theme in The Crucible is that of the conflict between innocence and experience/guilt. On page 110 Elizabeth says out in the open that it were a cold house I kept. This tells the audience that Elizabeth was frigid in her relationship with John. This has been hinted at throughout Elizabeth and Johns conversations and especially in Act 2 p42 its winter in this house yet as John says. Even though this is used by Elizabeth to show that she is guilty it tells the audience she is in fact innocent. To all appearances, and how most of the other characters perceive Elizabeth and Abigail, Elizabeth is the guilty one and Abigail is the innocent. They see Abigail as a child and a virgin who is pure sexually, morally and religiously whereas the audience, John, Elizabeth and Hale know better. The majority of characters see Elizabeth as the older, more sexually and sinfully experienced. Salem societys religious outlook fogs their judgement and they assume that the woman who they perceive as sexually innocent is also legally innocent. As we see they are wrong in both respects: John has committed adultery with Abigail who is the experienced and guilty one. William Blake This play is about the individual vs. the community. It shows the world what can happen if an individual speaks up for his/herself and acts on his/her personal beliefs. If one is not on the side of the community one is estranged from the community and rejected. In extreme circumstances, such as in this play, one can be put to death. Hale says (p116) that it is pride, it is vanity to create conflict with the community when you know you will be punished for doing so. Personally I think, I believe Arthur Miller thinks and the character of John Proctor thinks, that Hale is wrong. He suggests that it is wrong when he says it is vanity. Miller tries to show that John is a mostly upright character and died for a good cause. Miller believes this conflict between the individual and the community is right when the community is repressive and punishing. The word sibilance in the stage directions (p106) at the beginning of this scene means hissing and actually makes a hissing sound when articulated properly. The sibilance at the beginning of this scene shows the conflict between Elizabeths inner emotions and the emotions of the other characters in the scene. This sound breaks the silence when John comes in. I think it sets the scene for the last part of the play because Elizabeth Proctor is very docile and defeated at this last part of the play and Johns feet on the ground sounds like an animal hissing in fright. I think that at this point Elizabeth is hissing inside and this is the expression of her inside emotions. It is later confirmed that she is very scared for Johns life and her own and terrified about the whole situation as she is later in terror, weeping. This is caused because of the Proctors earlier conflict being resolved. This sibilance could alternatively be interpreted as Johns defiance against the court officials and jailers because as we see when Parris feebly offers, a cup of cider, Mr Proctor, he has nothing but contempt for them. The themes in this scene relate to the play as a whole. The theme of truth and lies and its resultant effect upon justice and injustice runs throughout the play. It begins on a simple level in Act One then as the play develops the situation gets more serious. The yellow bird the afflicted girls see could symbolise lying because the colour yellow is often linked with this conflict. This conflict continues all through the play and is resolved at the end when John Proctor and Rebecca Nurse hang because they are on the side of truth. In a way one could say that justice is defeated and destroyed at the end of the play because of all the characters those who stand up for truth and real justice, not Salem justice, are hanged. In my opinion justice wins this conflict because Proctor doesnt give in to lying at the very end. Although, he may be in part considering his and his familys reputation, his behaviour can also be likened to that of a saint after all; it is reminiscent of the early Christian martyrs. The truth/lies and justice/injustice conflicts are intrinsically related not just in the play but also universally. Falsity like Abigails can invoke great injustices as we see in the play but falsity like Hales let him give his lie intended actions could bring us back to justice. In the same way truth like Johns saying he will not sign myself to lies can lead to injustice since he is hanged at the end but in this play a great number of characters would have to see the complete truth to lead the to justice. Since all the characters have some belief in God the supreme judge they all believe in truth and justice to a certain extent and that that will be give at the end. As Elizabeth says: There be no higher judge under heaven. No one except God can judge Proctor and the other people to be hanged. This essay has discussed conflict between and within various different themes, people and ideas. The Chambers Science and Technology Dictionary says that a crucible is, a refractory vessel or pot in which metals are melted. The introduction to the Heinemann version of The Crucible 1992 (Maureen Blakesley) says, John Proctor is tested in a life threatening ordeal and his death at the end rather than betrayal of his conscience shows that he too has come through the fire to be purified. I would go as far as to say that the crucible (refractory vessel) is the ordeal and events therefore the play itself: The Crucible and the whole idea of conflict can be taken from just the play title. When John finally has his transgressions and personal disbeliefs refracted he is executed. This is also symbolic to show he becomes pure suggesting he has reached paradise after being removed from the crucible. Imogen Hagarty 1 Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Background Analysis And Performance Suggestions Luciano Berios Sequenza IXa is a work of increasingly great significance for the clarinet repertoire. In the past few years, numerous international music competitions, including the prestigious Geneva, Munich, and Nielsen competitions, have included the Sequenza in the repertoire for their first rounds. In addition, it has become an integral part of the unaccompanied solo standard clarinet repertoire in the twentieth century, and it provides clarinetists with a wealth of opportunities for exploring new techniques and freedom for musical interpretation. Upon first hearing it, the Sequenza intrigues, but challenges the listener to accept a new musical language. A glance at the score immediately reveals a host of difficulties for the performer, including a variety of rhythmic patterns, dynamic changes, and multiphonics, as well as the physical stamina required over the length of the piece. Apart from the score itself, little information is available about the history and construction of the piece from scholarly sources. This limited literature cannot satisfy the curiosity that the composition inspires.Ã Ã Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive aid to the study and performance of this piece, in order to make approaching the work more feasible and also more attractive to a wider breadth of clarinetists. My examination of the Sequenza will begin by contextualizing the work within the composers life and background, including a consideration of his statements about music and about the Sequenzas in particular. This will be followed by analysis of Sequenza IXa investigating the diverse array of musical elements, including harmonic fields, rhythmic patterns, transformational processes, structure, and multiphonics in the second part. To conclude, I will explore some of the difficulties in performing the piece and offer potential solutions. PART I: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF Sequenza IXa Berio is considered the foremost Italian avant-garde composer of his time, and one of the most influential composers of the twentieth century. He is particularly well known for his modernist approach and his extensive and experimental use of electronic instruments in art music. Born in Oneglia, Italy, he studied music with his father, an organist, before enrolling in music school in Milan.Ã Ã In 1950, he married the American singer Cathy Berberian, a soprano who subsequently performed many of his works.Ã Ã He traveled to the United States in 1953 to study with Dallapiccola, who he was introduced him to serialism. However, the most important aspect of his trip to the United States was his exposure to electronic music. In 1952, he attended the first public concert of electronic music in the U.S. At New Yorks Museum of Modern Art, the concert featured tape pieces by Otto Luening and Vladimir Ussachevsky.Ã Ã After returning to Italy, he co-founded the noted electroni c music center Studio di Fonologia Musicale in Milan in 1955, directing it from 1955 to 1961.Ã Ã From 1965 to 1972, he taught at the Julliard School in New York City; during this time, he also held a number of international teaching responsibilities.Ã Ã In addition, Berio served as a director of the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique Musique (IRCAM) in Paris. In 1980, he accepted an honorary Doctorate of Music Degree from City University in London. Two years later, he became the Artistic Director of the Orchestra Regionale Toscana and in 1984, Artistic Director of the Maggio Musical Fiorentino.Ã Ã Berios musical style may be seen as engaging and an extending of European and Italian classical traditions. His many years of education and his long career demonstrate this, as do the statements he has made about music and his own music in particular. Berio has described music as the constant search for an answer to something that continuously shifts.Ã Ã He has further stated that the search for a deep unity, is maybe the most exciting, the most profoundly experimental and the least functional aspect of its presence.Ã Ã These descriptive words are useful in understanding what Berio has said about the Sequenzas. The series of fourteen Sequenzas was a long-standing project, spanning 30 years. Each of these pieces is written for a solo instrument, and demonstrates extensive performance techniques. In virtually all of the Sequenzas, these techniques are intended to expand the boundaries of what was playable or singable on the respective instrument. The Sequenza series can be considered a manual of instrumental composing in the twentieth century. The majority of the Sequenzas were commissioned by or composed for a certain performer, and Berio often collaborated closely with these performers to understand the particular abilities and limitations of the instrument.Ã Ã For example, one of his most successful Sequenzas is Sequenza III, for female voice, written for and dedicated to Berberian, a pioneer in avant-garde vocal techniques. Sequenza IXa was commissioned and premiered by the French clarinetist Michel Arrignon in 1980. Between 1977 and 1983 Berio worked on a piece entitled Chemins V for clarinet and real-time digital filters,Ã Ã but it was never completed. Later, Berio withdrew Chemins V, and titled the extracted clarinet part Sequenza IXa.Ã Ã Berio says that, All theSequenzas for solo instruments are intended to set out and melodically develop an essentially harmonic discourse and to suggest, particularly in the case of the monodic instruments, a polyphonic mode of listeningÃ Ã As he described further in regards to his flute Sequenza: I wanted to establish a way of listening so strongly conditioned as to constantly suggest a latent, implicit counterpoint. The idea was the polyphonic melodies of Bach. An inaccessible ideal, naturally, because what implicitly guided polyphonic listening in a Bach melody was nothing less than the history of baroque musical language, whereas in a nonlinguistic melody like my Sequenza for flute, history provided no protection, and everything had to be planned out explicitly.Ã Ã In Sequenza I, various procedures project the concept of polyphony, largely based on Bachs polyphonic melodies. However, Berio soon came to realize the impossibility of achieving this goal, partially because Bachs polyphony was made possible by the universal tonal language of the time. Without the use of Baroque harmonic conventions, Berio relies on another way of implying underlying counterpoint. To achieve this, he explored the idea of a single instrument producing more than one voice. In this way, a monophonic instrument becomes capable of implying not only a dialogue, but also the sounding together of more than one voice. Sequenza IXa, like the flute Sequenza, can be said to use the same nonlinguistic type of melody. The most obvious and literal manner of achieving more than one voice with a monophonic instrument is through multiphonics. Another way to simulate polyphony in a monophonic instrument is to use a type of technique Bach uses in his pieces, compound melody. Following the idea of using two pitch-class collections differently, one melody tends to appear in the same register, whereas the other traverses the range of the instrument in very wide leaps and with great variety.Ã Ã Berio developed these two pitch-class collections experimenting with temporal, dynamic, pitch, and morphological dimensions to generates a type of polyphony. These different musical elements are recognizable through the transformational processes, which will discuss later in the paper. In a discussion of the form of Sequenza I, Berio said, The title was meant to underline that the piece was built from a sequence of harmonic fieldsfrom which the other strongly characterized musical functions were derived.Ã Ã In the same interview, Berio continued: The temporal, dynamic, pitch and morphological dimensions of the piece are characterized by maximum, medium and minimum levels of tension. The level of maximum tension within the temporal dimension is produced by moments of maximum speed in articulation and moments of maximum duration of sounds, the medium level is always established by a neutral distribution of fairly long notes and fairly rapid articulations, and the minimum level entails silence, or a tendency to silence. The pitch dimension is at its maximum level when notes jump about a wide gamut and establish the tensest intervals, or when they insist on extreme register: The medium and minimum levels follow logically from this. The maximum level of the dynamic dimension is naturally produced by moments of maximum sound energy and maximum dynamic contrast. What I call the morphological dimension is placed, in certain aspects, at the service of the other three and is, as it were, their rhetorical instrument.Ã Ã This statement can further be applied to Sequenza IXa for solo clarinet, as it is also an essentially harmonic discourse which is melodically developed by temporal, dynamic, pitch and morphological dimensionsÃ Ã in order to suggest a polyphonic mode of listening. Analysis of the piece shows that Berios statement does in fact apply and is of use in understanding Sequenza IXa. PART II: ANALYTICAL DISCUSSION Harmonic fields As Berio states, the title Sequenza was meant to underline that the piece was built from a sequence of harmonic fieldsfrom which the other, strongly characterized musical functions were derived.Ã Ã In his Berio, David Osmond-Smith observes that the harmonic field can be defined as a temporary emphasis on a single pitch or on a collection of pitches.Ã Ã Berio uses both options to establish a harmonic field, similar to the function of chords in tonal music. Thus, when Berio moves from one field to another, it can be said that there is a shift of harmony. Andrea Cremaschi explains that Berio does not use a dodecaphonic series, but rather divides the twelve notes into two separate pitch-class collections: a five-note collection and a seven-note collection. The first collection traverses the instruments range, is used melodically, and is characterized by wide, varied leaps (see Fig. 1a). The seven-note collection, in contrast, tends to appear in the same register and generally appears with less variety (see Fig. 1b).Ã Ã As the piece develops, these two distinct pitch-class collections appear in contrast, in alternation, or, in some cases, interlaced with each other. As shown in Figure1, while the two pitch-class collections are distinct, both are characterized by multiple occurrences of the tritone. Figure 1. The five-note (a) and seven-note (b) collections of Sequenza IXa.Ã Ã Sequenza IXa moves through a sequence of harmonic fields which are defined by the use of one or more of the following devices among the two contrasting pitch-class collections: 1) the use of the two pitch-class collections in rapid succession; 2) the use of the first pitch of each collection as the beginning and ending note of a phrase; and 3) the use of what Berio calls tense intervals which suggest harmonic tension and resolution.Ã Ã The two different pitch collections appear at the beginning of the work. The melody shown in Ex.1 is primarily based on the five-note collection, whose pitches move between three registers with relative freedom. The seven-note collection ornaments the melody, with only two notes from it, F# and D, appearing. These two notes function not only as passing notes, but also as ornamentation, similar to the grace notes in the second and third line. The ascending grace notes at the beginning of line 2 occur in rapid succession. Most of the notes are still based on the five-note collection, except for three notes from the seven-note collection, still F#, D, and now D#. Similar grace- note passages are prevalent throughout the piece. Berio uses this blending of the two pitch-class collections to establish the harmonic field. Example 1. Sequenza IXa, Page 1, Lines 1-3. Circles indicate pitches from the seven-note collection used as passing tones. The second device, the repetition of the first note, is illustrated in Ex. 2a, lines 4-8. The rehearsal A section consists of four melodic phrases, each phrase separated by a fermata and silence. The four melodic phrases are based on the seven-note collection, with the seven notes largely fixed in the same register. Now there are only two pitches chosen from the five-note collection, G and Bb. Here, the seven-note collection previously used for ornamentation becomes the principal pitch-class collection, which indicates movement away from the previous harmonic field. The starting tending pitches of the 4 phrases compose out the 1st 4-note motive, G#, F#, D, A. Berio unifies the four phrases here, beginning each subsequent phrase on the next of the first four notes (G#, F#, D, A) of the first phrase. As with the G# in the first phrase, the F#, D, and A serve as the beginning and ending notes of the second, third and fourth phrases, respectively. Example 2a. Sequenza IXa, Page 1, Lines 4-8: Circles highlight the repetition of pitches at the beginning and ending of phrases. In addition, the repeated use of a series of several notes drawn from both pitch-class collections in a fixed order establishes a new harmonic field. In Ex. 2b, the first phrase establishes the following sequence of pitches: G#, F#, D, A1, D#1, C#2, G2, C2, A1, Bb2, D. Subsequent phrases rotate these pitches, moving the first note of the previous phrase to the end of the sequence, though not the end of the phrase. That is, the order of the pitches remains fixed, though their relative position in the sequence changes. Thus, the repetition of this note order establishes the harmonic field. Example 2b. Sequenza IXa, Page 1, Lines 4-8: Circled pitches reveal the fixed sequence, while boxes indicate discreet phrases. Berio expands the device of repetition as the basis of a harmonic field later in the piece. In Example 3 a brief sequence of pitches from the third line of the work, D1, A1, D#1, C#1, B1 is extracted and subsequently repeated. The appearance of this fragment implies the earlier harmonic field seen in Ex.1, line 3, but the addition of other pitches in addition to its repetition implies movement to a new harmonic field. Example 3. Sequenza IXa, Page 2, Lines 1-3: The circled portions show the repeated pattern from the previous harmonic field. The third way in which Berio establishes a harmonic field is by the use of tense or dissonant intervals. As discussed previously, the piece changes harmonic fields by moving to different pitch-class groups. In Example 4, line 2, the dotted quarter-note G# is the first note of substantial duration in the new harmonic field from the seven-note collection. It is preceded by a leap of a major 7th and followed by a diminished 5th, minor 7th, minor 2nd and minor 7th, in that order. The minor 2nd, between the eighth-note E and the quarter-note F, functions as leading-tone to tonic relationship resolving back to the five-note collection. The sense of harmonic tension and resolution created by these interval relationships thus implies the harmonic field. Each subsequent harmonic field uses the same idea of tension and resolution, thus implying harmonic shift. M7 m7 m7 d5 m2 Example 4. Sequenza IXa, Page 1, Lines 1-3: Use of tense or dissonant intervals All of the above methods define the sequence of harmonic fields in Sequenza IXa; therefore, this piece conforms to Berios description of his Sequenzas as a sequence of harmonic fields. Rhythms In Sequenza IXa, there are many places on the score where Berio specifies tempos. At the beginning of the work, the tempo is marked as a quarter note equals sixty. At letter A, it increases to a value of seventy-two. Berio also gives specific durations for the fermatas, placed at the ends of most phrases. Despite these specific tempo markings, the composer places the expressive marking ma sempre un poco instabile (but always a little bit unstable) at the beginning of the score. Perhaps Berio wanted to give the liberty to the performer to vary the tempo within the phrase. In this piece, Berio does not use complex rhythmic techniques, but instead creates a lot of variety using simple rhythms. Although using a limited number of distinct rhythmic figures, Berio rarely repeats the same groupings. Through this rhythmic variety, he creates a feeling of unpredictability. This can be found in Ex.5 and 8. Example 5. Sequenza IXa, Page 8, Lines 1-4: The representative of the rhythmic figures Berio has an extraordinary range of rhythmic arrangements. Below is a list of the four most frequent rhythms used in the piece. There are additional rhythms used in the piece, such as long notes and grace notes, but shown below are the most prominent rhythms. Figure 2. Four rhythms He applies the idea of a rotating sequence, as he did for pitch, to arrange the rhythms in the A section. He uses these four rhythms to create a rhythmic sequence. The following graph reflects the use of the rhythmic sequence (see Fig.3). In the first line of the graph, there are four melodic phrases with each phrase containing all four rhythms (Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" ). As indicated in the second line, each of these rhythms begins and ends a phrase. In addition, the first phrase begins with the sequence of rhythms ( Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã ) . The subsequent phrases rotate the rhythmic sequence by moving the first rhythm of the previous phrase to the end of the sequence, though not the end of the phrase. (see Ex.6) First phrase Second phrase Third phrase Fourth phrase Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã long note Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë long note, rest Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ long note Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" long note Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Figure 3. The graph of rhythmic sequence in Sequenza IXa, Page 1. Lines 4-8. Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å" Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ë Example 6. Sequenza IXa, Page 1, Lines 4-8: The circled letters indicate the rhythmic sequence Transformational process As Berio discusses a polyphonic mode of listening, the piece set out and ismelodically developed by altering time, dynamic, pitch, and morphology. It uses a transformational process that suggests a polyphonic mode of listening rather than creating actual polyphony. Each of these unique layers develops and presents material in a different way. Even though each layer develops differently, they combine to create a unified whole. This is the way to understand a polyphonic mode of listening, in Berios concept. The first stylistic feature is the tempo at the highest level of intensity, when there are passages with either very rapid articulations or very long notes. Ex. 1, line 1, at the fermata, shows the temporal dimension at a very high level of intensity because of the length of the held note. Ex.7 shows an example of the temporal dimension at a high level of intensity that is transformed from the held note into a passage of ascending and descending, rapid, staccato articulation, which eventually becomes an extended chromatic passage lasting fifteen seconds at letter E. From example 1. Sequenza IXa , Page 1, Line 1. Example 7. Sequenza IXa, Page 3, Lines 3-9: the transformation of the tempo. The transformation of pitch, the second stylistic feature, can be heard in ascending grace-note figures such as at the beginning of line 2 in Ex. 1. The grace- note figures transform at the end of the same line, altered by the removal of the last two notes, which is pitches G1 and B1. This feature is seen again in line 3 of Ex 1, where the pitches are altered to imply a new harmonic field. The transformation of the dynamics, the third stylistic feature, is demonstrated by the staccato grace notes seen in Ex. 8. In the first line, the first staccato grace note is a G# and the next is a D. Both are played piano in the midst of a fortissimo, which interrupts the dynamic level with a very short and quiet note. This feature is used several times in Ex. 8. At the beginning of line 5 in Ex.8, this feature is seen in the p grace notes continuing to interrupt the ff dynamic level. As the piece develops, this feature transforms when the grace notes becomes a mezzo forte interruption of a pianissimo dynamic level. (See Ex.8) Example from Sequenza Ixa, Page 4 line 1-6 Example 8. Sequenza IXa, Page 6, Lines 7 : The transformation of the dynamics The rapid 32nd -note figure in Bb shown in Ex. 8, lines 2-7, appears four times. In the final pages, when Bb recurs, it transforms into a fermata with a specific duration. Although the Bb does not belong to the main harmonic field here, it plays an important role in the final pages. The tritone effect between Bb and the ending E is almost directionless, in a way that seems to recall the opening of piece.Ã Ã (see Ex. 9) Example 9. Sequenza IXa, Page 10, Lines 4-8: The tritone effect between Bb and the ending E. The last stylistic feature is morphological tension, which is demonstrated in the multiphonics and microtones within the trills and tremolos of Ex 11, the C1 to C1-multiphonic passage. This relationship of C1to B is explored by a trill from B to C1 two notes. The use of multiphonics and micronotes is especially significant because they create the greatest pitch and morphological tension in the trill. The multiphonic passage shown in Ex 10 is transformed rhythmically and dynamically by becoming more active when it returns. Like the other stylistic techniques, multiphonics and micronotes are transformed by each recurrence. Example 10a from Sequenza IXa, Page 2, Line 3. Example 10b. Sequenza IXa, Page 10, Lines 4-8: The transformation of morphology Structure chart of Sequence IXa Just like most classical works, this piece also includes an exposition, development and ending Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢ three major parts. However, the process of this whole piece creates a sequence of harmonic fields by alternating, blending, and transformational processes among the two contrasting pitch-class collections. The chart below clearly shows how Berio uses these pitch-class collections as a motivation throughout the whole piece. BeginningÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢A Two pitch-class collections appear: a five-note collection and a seven-note collection Exposition B Transition Transition C Primarily based on a five-note collection with a wide range, activated rhythm, and big leaps to start transformation and development Development I D Primarily based on a seven-note collection with rapid grace notes gradually transforming to a passage of thirty-second notes E Primarily based on a five-note collection, similar to the C section; Bb appears as a thirty-second note to foreshadow the climax FÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢G Two pitch-class collections alternating and blending with each other. The rhythm becomes more agitated, to further indicate the climax is coming Transition H Transition, similar to the B section Transition I Primarily based on a seven-note collection. The rhythm figure is similar to the FÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢G section Development II JÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢L Multiphonics, two pitch-collections further develop and blend with each other. Transition to next section Transition MÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢Q Cadenza, two pitch-class collections alternating with each other as a preparation for the climax of the piece Development III (Climax of the piece) RÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢V Climax of the piece, two pitch-class collections present at different ranges, dynamics, and rhythms, which alternate between calm and frenzied phrases WÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢Z Epilogue, ending Ending Figure 3: The structure of Seuquenza IXa Solutions to problems of performing multiphonics Sequenza IXa Clarinetists who use an instrument without an Eb key will have a difficult time performing this piece, since there are some multiphonics that appeared on page 6, lines 4, 5 and 6 (see Ex.11) playable only on a clarinet with an Eb key. For those without the Eb key, there are a few techniques to recreate these multiphonics. One may be the use of the performers voice to sing one of the desired pitches. This solution might change the idea of the solo work, but the notes can be produced and the piece would be complete. Another way is the use of a tube to extend the length of the clarinet, effecting an instrument very similar in pitch to one with an Eb key. With regard to the multiphonic fingering applied to the two-note chords in the section around K, the player could use a low E fingering (without the thumb key in the left hand) plus the throat G# key in the left hand for the first multiphonic at line 6. The low E fingering (without the thumb key in the left hand) plus the throat A key in the left hand for the second multiphonic at line 7. The problems with this solution are, first, the tone of the clarinet will be different; second, the player must quickly insert and remove the tube during the performance, which could be clumsy and awkward; and third, the player would have to use an alternative fingering for the B natural at line 4. However, the most difficult thing is getting the chords to speak reliably Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢ this will require practice. A final solution could be the substitution of other multiphonics which are playable on the performers instrument. However, the problem with this alternative is at least one of the pitches must be transposed, resulting in changing the piece somewhat. Example 11. Sequenza IXa, Page 6, Lines 4-6: The fingering for the multiphonics After hearing and seeing several clarinetists perform this piece, it seems that switching to the alternate multiphonics is preferable because this does not interfere with the natural sound quality of the clarinet. On the other hand, Berio specified different fingerings on the music, and he did not provide an alternate version of multiphonics in subsequent editions since the piece was written 20 years ago. Maybe Berio did not consider this a major issue, and wanted to give the clarinetist the freedom to imagine ways of solving the problem.